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Andrews, Regina (21 May 1901–05 February 1993), librarian and dramatist, was born Regina M. Anderson in the Hyde Park section of Chicago, Illinois, to Margaret Simons Anderson, a clubwoman and ceramics artist, and William Grant Anderson, an attorney. Regina grew up in an upper-middle-class family because of her father’s success as a defense attorney, which earned him the nickname “Habeas Corpus.” Her views about race were no doubt shaped by her father’s fighting for racial justice for his clients and his collaboration with the antilynching advocate ...

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Andrews, Stephen Pearl (22 March 1812–21 May 1886), eccentric philosopher and reformer, was born in Templeton, Massachusetts, the son of Elisha Andrews, a Baptist clergyman, and Wealthy Ann Lathrop. He attended the village school and, after the family moved to Hinsdale, New Hampshire, in 1816, was taught at home by his father. In 1828 and 1829 he studied in the classical department of Amherst Academy, where he was influenced by Professor ...

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Bettelheim, Bruno (28 August 1903–13 March 1990), therapist, educator, and author, was born in Vienna, Austria, the son of Anton Bettelheim, a lumber merchant, and Pauline Seidler. Following his father’s death in 1926, he dropped out of the university to take over the family firm. Although successful in business, he re-enrolled ten years later to become, in February 1938, one of the last Jews to obtain a Ph.D. from Vienna University before World War II. While he was a philosophy student, aesthetics was his main subject, but he also studied psychology under ...

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Botta, Anne Charlotte (11 November 1815–23 March 1891), educator, writer, and literary hostess, was born Anne Charlotte Lynch in Bennington, Vermont, the daughter of Patrick Lynch, a merchant, and Charlotte Gray. The family moved to Pennsylvania and later to Windham, Connecticut. In 1819 Patrick Lynch died at sea while going to claim land offered by the Cuban government to Irish refugees. His widow took their young children to Hartford, Connecticut. At sixteen Anne enrolled at the Albany Female Seminary in Albany, New York, graduating with honors in 1834 and staying on for some time to teach....

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Friedländer, Paul (21 March 1882–10 December 1968), classicist, was born in Berlin, the son of Maximilian Friedländer, a businessman, and Clara Schidlower. He attended school at the Friedrichs-Gymnasium and in 1900 began study at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, both in his native city. There he first met his mentor and patron, Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, the greatest Hellenist of modern times. He studied for two semesters in 1902 at Bonn under the Latinist Franz Buecheler and the Hellenist and historian of religion Hermann Usener as well as the archaeologist Georg Loeschcke. He hesitated between archaeology and philology, dedicating his Berlin dissertation, ...

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Pratt, Daniel (11 April 1809–20 June 1887), wanderer, eccentric, and lecturer, was born in the Prattville section of Chelsea, Massachusetts, the son of Daniel Pratt, Jr., and Mary Hall. The roots of the distinguished Pratt family go back to revolutionary times; Daniel’s father was a humbler member of the strain. Daniel was the second of his ten children and outlived all of them except possibly one....

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Sampson, Deborah (17 December 1760–29 April 1827), revolutionary heroine and public speaker, was born in Plympton, Massachusetts, the daughter of Jonathan Sampson and Deborah Bradford, farmers. Born into a family that claimed a distinguished lineage from the days of the early Pilgrims in Massachusetts, Sampson endured a painful and impoverished childhood. Her father died when Deborah was five. She lived with an elderly female relative for three years and with a pastor’s widow for two more years before she was bound out as a servant to the family of Jeremiah Thomas in Middleborough, Massachusetts. Sampson thrived during the period of her indenture, learning manual skills and her letters. She became literate enough to teach school for a period of six months after she became free from her indenture in 1779. To this point in her life, little distinguished her from her fellows other than her physical strength. She was five feet seven inches, and observers commented on her sturdy physique....