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Bissell, Richard Mervin, Jr. (18 September 1909–07 February 1994), economics professor and government administrator, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, the son of Richard Bissell, a wealthy insurance executive, and Marie Truesdel. As a young man, Bissell studied at elite educational institutions, including Groton School; Yale University, where he received a B.A. in 1932; and the London School of Economics, where he began his postgraduate work. In 1933 he returned to Yale as an instructor and was promoted to assistant professor before earning his Ph.D. in economics in 1939. In 1940 he married Ann Cornelia Bushnell; they had five children. Described by one friend as “desperately shy,” Bissell seemed destined in 1941 to remain a university educator and scholar. However, the outbreak of World War II dramatically changed his life, as he left Yale to become a member of ...

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Burns, Arthur Frank (27 April 1904–26 June 1987), economist and government official, was born in the Jewish ghetto of Stanislau, Austria, the son of Nathan Burns, a housepainter, and Sarah Juran. Burns immigrated to the United States with his family in 1914, settling in Bayonne, New Jersey. He worked his way through Columbia University, earning an A.B. and an A.M. in 1925 and a Ph.D. in economics in 1934....

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Clague, Ewan (27 December 1896–12 April 1987), economist and civil servant, was born in Prescott, Washington, the son of John Clague and Eleanor Christian Cooper, farmers and immigrants from the Isle of Man, Great Britain. Clague attended the University of Washington, earning an A.B. in economics in 1917. After two years in the U.S. Army, 1917–1919, he returned to the University of Washington, where he earned an A.M. in economics in 1921. He went on to study for his doctorate in economics at what was then perhaps the nation’s leading institution of higher education in the fields of labor economics and industrial relations, the University of Wisconsin....

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Douglas, Paul Howard (26 March 1892–24 September 1976), economist, educator, and U.S. senator, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, the son of James Howard Douglas and Annie Smith. The latter, a laborer, died when Paul was four. His father remarried but soon became an alcoholic and abandoned his wife and son. Douglas worked his way through Bowdoin College, from which he received a B.A. in 1913, and won a scholarship to Columbia University, where he earned an M.A. in 1915 and a Ph.D. in economics in 1921....

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Dulles, Eleanor Lansing (01 June 1895–30 October 1996), economist and State Department official, was born in Watertown, New York, the fourth child of Allen Macy Dulles, a minister, and Edith Foster Dulles. The family, which also included siblings John Foster, Margaret, and Allen, lived in the Presbyterian manse. Following the birth of another daughter, the family moved to Auburn, New York, where the scholarly Reverend Dulles taught at the Auburn Theological Seminary and preached at the Second Avenue Presbyterian Church. The move to Auburn ideally suited Edith Foster Dulles. She quickly became one of the area’s most active, progressive social work leaders, heading the Women’s Educational and Industrial Union. Edith also brought the expectations and ambitions of her wealthy, upper-class background to bear on her children’s lives. Edith’s father, ...

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Edwards, Corwin D. (01 November 1901–20 April 1979), economist and government official, was born in Nevada, Missouri, the son of Granville Dennis Edwards, a teacher and minister, and Ida May Moore. Edwards graduated from the University of Missouri with an A.B. in 1920 and a B.J. in 1921, and was a Rhodes Scholar in 1924. He received a Ph.D. in economics from Cornell in 1928. In 1924 he married Janet Morris Ward; they had two children. This marriage ended in divorce in 1947, and in 1948 Edwards married Gertrud Greig, a research associate....

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Goldenweiser, Emanuel Alexander (31 July 1883–31 March 1953), economist and author, was born in Kiev, Russia, the son of Alexander Solomonovich Goldenweiser, a lawyer, criminologist, and author of books on law and sociology, and Sofia Munstein. His father was also a friend and personal adviser to Count Leo Tolstoy. In 1902 Goldenweiser graduated from the First Kiev Gymnasium and then emigrated to the United States, where he was admitted to Columbia University. After receiving a B.A. from Columbia in 1903, he entered Cornell University, earning an M.A. in 1905 and a Ph.D. in 1907. In that latter year he also became a naturalized American citizen....

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Grady, Henry Francis (12 February 1882–14 September 1957), diplomat, economist, and businessman, was born in San Francisco, California, the son of John Henry Grady and Ellen Genevieve Rourke. He earned his A.B. in 1907 from St. Mary’s University in Baltimore, Maryland, and his doctorate in economics in 1927 from Columbia University. As a young man, Grady studied for the Roman Catholic priesthood, but his interest in economics and finance led him to overlapping careers in business, academia, and government. In 1917 he married Lucretia del Valle; they had four children....

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Hauge, Gabriel Sylfest (07 March 1914–24 July 1981), economist, White House aide, and banker, was born in Hawley, Minnesota, the son of Soren Gabrielson Hauge, a Lutheran minister, and Anna B. Thompson. Hauge lived in the small town of Hawley until he enrolled in Concordia College at Moorhead, Minnesota, in 1931. Active in clubs as well as the student newspaper and radio station, he was elected class president each of his first three years. As a senior, he was student body president and class valedictorian....

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Heller, Walter Wolfgang (27 August 1915–15 June 1987), chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, was born in Buffalo, New York, the son of Ernst Heller, a civil engineer, and Gertrude Warmburg. Both parents were German immigrants. In 1935 Heller received an A.B. from Oberlin College, where he earned election to Phi Beta Kappa. He did his graduate work in economics at the University of Wisconsin and received his M.A. in 1938 and a Ph.D. in 1941, specializing in finance and taxation. At the time, Heller received a Social Science Research Council grant to study income tax laws in thirty-one states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. Heller married Emily Karen Johnson, also a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin, in 1938. They had three children....

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Leon Henderson Testing the first of the "Victory" bicycles built without strategic war materials; an OPA stenographer is sitting in the parcel basket. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-102599).

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Henderson, Leon (26 May 1895–19 October 1986), economist and government official, was born in Millville, New Jersey, the son of Chester Henderson, a glass factory worker, and Lida Beebe. When Leon was twelve years old, his father bought a farm with the family’s savings, leaving nothing for Henderson’s further education. While working odd jobs, Henderson graduated from Millville High School in 1913. After a semester at the University of Pennsylvania (having dropped out because of money problems), and with the help of a scholarship, he enrolled at Swarthmore college in 1915. When the United States entered World War I, Henderson enlisted in the army. Discharged in 1919, he returned to Swarthmore, graduating in 1920. From 1920 to 1922 he was a graduate student in economics at the University of Pennsylvania and then became an assistant professor of economics at Carnegie Institute of Technology. Next he joined the administration of Pennsylvania governor ...

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Keyserling, Leon (22 January 1908–09 August 1987), chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, was born in Beaufort, South Carolina, the son of William Keyserling and Jennie Hyman, owners of varied agricultural and mercantile enterprises. Keyserling, a bright student, finished public school in Beaufort, South Carolina at the age of sixteen. Entering Columbia University, he studied with ...

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Loucks, Henry Langford (24 May 1846–29 December 1928), politician and economist, was born in Hull, Quebec, Canada, the son of William J. Loucks, a merchant, and Anna York. Henry received his education in the Canadian common schools. For a number of years after graduating he became involved, for varying lengths of time, in merchandizing and the lumber business. In 1878 Loucks married Florence Isabel McCraney, and they produced seven children, three of whom died before reaching adulthood....

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Lubin, Isador (09 June 1896–06 July 1978), economist and government official, was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, the son of Lithuanian and Polish Jewish immigrants Harris Lubin and Hinda Francke. His father owned a store in Worcester that sold work clothes on credit. While attending high school and Clark University in Worcester, from which he graduated with a bachelor’s degree in 1916, Lubin worked for his father as a bill collector. This experience showed him the vicissitudes of industrial labor and the need for unemployment insurance. Frequently, his father’s customers could not pay because of seasonal mill layoffs. In college, Lubin became intrigued with the writings of ...

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Nutter, Gilbert Warren (10 March 1923–15 January 1979), economist and political adviser, was born in Topeka, Kansas, the son of Coleman Evan Nutter, an electrical engineer, and Helen Rose Gilberg. Nutter was educated at the University of Chicago, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in 1944. He received his B.A. in 1944, having already been inducted into the U.S. Army. Following his discharge from military service, for which he was awarded the Bronze Star with Oak Leaf Cluster, he spent the 1946–1947 academic year teaching at Lawrence College. He then returned to the University of Chicago, where he obtained an M.A. in 1948 and a Ph.D. in economics in 1949. In 1946 he married Jane Calvert Couch; they had four children....

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Okun, Arthur Melvin (28 November 1928–23 March 1980), academic economist, policymaker, and presidential adviser, was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, the son of Louis Okun, a candy and tobacco wholesaler, and Rose Cantor. He attended Passaic (N.J.) High School and was an undergraduate at Columbia College in New York City, graduating in 1949 with a B.A. in economics. Seven years later he completed his Ph.D. at Columbia. Okun married Suzanne Grossman in 1951; they had three sons....

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Stein, Herbert (27 August 1916–08 September 1999), economist and policy advisor, was born in Detroit, Michigan, the son of David Stein, a Russian immigrant who was a mechanic at Ford Motor Company, and Jessie Segal Stein. When the Great Depression came, Stein's father spent some time working at General Electric in Schenectady, New York, and then was unemployed for a large part of the downturn. Stein graduated from high school at age fifteen and entered Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts, in the same year. He was a distinguished student and won the prestigious Wells Prize before he was twenty for scholarly work on Allied finances in World War I. As a scholarship student at Williams, Stein worked his way through, partly by washing dishes in the Sigma Phi fraternity house. Sigma Phi did not admit Jews as members; it was characteristic of Stein that he showed no resentment over this situation....

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Tolley, Howard Ross (30 September 1889–18 September 1958), agricultural economist and civil servant, was born in Howard County, Indiana, the son of Elmer E. Tolley, a farmer and schoolteacher, and Mollie Grindle, also a schoolteacher. Tolley attended Marion Normal College in Marion, Indiana, and Indiana University, where he received a B.A. in mathematics. He then taught high school mathematics in Michigan City, Indiana, but found it unrewarding. Through a civil service examination, he obtained a job as a “computer” with the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. He married Zora Hazlett and moved to Washington, D.C., in 1912; they had three children....

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Harry Dexter White. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-113822).