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Cardozo, Jacob Newton (17 June 1786–30 August 1873), economist and journalist, was born in Savannah, Georgia, the son of David N. Cardozo, a member of the Sephardic Jewish mercantile community who had served in the South Carolina militia during the American Revolution (the identity of his mother is unknown). Cardozo had a modest formal education; he left school at the age of twelve and subsequently became a lumber clerk. From an early age he displayed a remarkable intellectual curiosity and a talent for writing. His career in journalism began in 1816 when he joined the staff of the ...

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Carey, Henry Charles (15 December 1793–13 October 1879), economist, publisher, and social scientist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Mathew Carey, an economist and publisher, and Bridget Flavahan. His father, an Irish patriot and political exile, also worked periodically in social science. Carey never received any formal education and instead was taught by his father. In addition, he read many of the books that made their way through his father’s publishing house, Carey & Lea (later known as Carey, Lea & Carey). In 1802 he went to work for his father, eventually becoming a partner and head of the firm, which was at the time the largest publishing and bookselling house in the country. Carey became the American publisher for Thomas Carlyle, Sir Walter Scott, and ...

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Carey, Mathew (28 January 1760–16 September 1839), publisher and economist, was born in Dublin, Ireland, the son of Christopher Carey, a prosperous baker, and Mary Sherridan, both Catholics. He was an avid reader but not a good student. He was taunted at school because of his lameness (the result of having been dropped by a nurse) and his small stature; for the rest of his life he was quick to take offense at any imagined slight to his dignity. In 1775 he was apprenticed to a bookseller who was also copublisher of the ...

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Coxe, Tench (22 May 1755–16 July 1824), promoter of American industrial growth and journalist, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of William Coxe, a landowner and merchant, and Mary Francis. His great-grandfather Daniel Coxe, besides securing the family’s fortune as the principal proprietor of colonial New Jersey, apparently bequeathed to his great-grandson an intense appetite for land speculation. At age six Tench was enrolled in the academy division of the Philadelphia College and Academy (later the University of Pennsylvania), where he appears to have been an indifferent student. In 1772, after attending college for only a brief time (it is not clear what he studied), Coxe opened a small trading business. Four years later he became a partner in his father’s commercial firm, Coxe, Furman, and Coxe. Active in the social world of Philadelphia’s elite, Coxe also became a member in 1775 of the United Company of Philadelphia for Promoting American Manufactures, one of the nation’s earliest joint stock manufacturing companies....

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Hamilton, Earl Jefferson (17 May 1899–07 May 1989), economic historian, editor, and educator, was born in Houlka, Mississippi, the son of Joseph William Hamilton and Frances Regina Anne Williams. After graduating from Mississippi State University in 1920 with honors, Hamilton studied at the University of Texas, where he received an M.A. in 1924. He then went to Harvard University, where he completed both an A.M. (1926) and a Ph.D. (1929) in economics. In 1923 he married Gladys Olive Dallas; they had one child....

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Haynes, Williams (29 July 1886–16 November 1970), publisher, historian, and chemical economist, was born Nathan Gallup Williams Haynes in Detroit, Michigan, the son of David Oliphant Haynes, owner and operator of a publishing company, and Helene Dunham Williams. He spent some time finding what he wanted to do with his life. After six months in his early twenties as a reporter for the ...

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Alvin Johnson Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-116973 ).

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Johnson, Alvin Saunders (18 December 1874–07 June 1971), economist, educator, and journalist, was born near Homer, Dakota County, Nebraska, the son of John Johnson and Edel Maria Katrina Bille, farmers. Johnson’s father emigrated from Denmark to the United States in 1849 with the name Jens Jensen Deyrup; the immigration officer gave him the name John Johnson. Johnson’s mother emigrated from Denmark in 1867. By the time she arrived in Nebraska, John had fought in the Civil War and outlived two other wives, who had left him with five children. Johnson’s parents subsequently had three more children....

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Rochester, Anna (30 March 1880–11 May 1966), Marxist economist, writer, and editor, was born in New York City to Louise Agatha Bamman Rochester, a former schoolteacher, and Roswell Hart Rochester, treasurer of Western Union Telegraph Company. Raised an only child in a wealthy suburb of New York, Anna spent her childhood in the company of hired companions and nurses while her mother suffered from trigeminal neuralgia. She attended the Dwight School for Girls in Englewood, New Jersey, and proved especially adept at languages, becoming fluent in German and French....