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Hammond, Bray (20 November 1886–20 July 1968), economic historian and banker, was born in Springfield, Missouri, the son of Harry H. Hammond, a bank cashier, and Lucy Bray. In 1907 he married Lucille Bennett; they had four children before her death in 1927. In 1912 he graduated from Stanford University and was elected Phi Beta Kappa. From 1913 through 1916 he was assistant professor of English at the State College of Washington, in Pullman. From 1917 to 1919 he served in the U.S. Army Signal Corps, Aviation Section, rising to captain rank. From 1919 to 1928 he served as personnel manager for a manufacturing firm in New Haven, Connecticut. In 1929 he was a bookkeeper for the Irving Trust Company in New York City, then in 1930 began serving on the Board of Governors for the Federal Reserve System. Hammond remained on the board until 1950, retiring after serving as its assistant secretary during the final six years of his tenure....

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Rukeyser, Merryle Stanley (03 January 1897–21 December 1988), financial columnist and lecturer, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Isaac Rukeyser and Pauline Solomon. Rukeyser grew up in Manhattan, New York, and graduated from Townsend Harris High School at the age of sixteen. He began his newspaper career at the age of seventeen while attending Columbia University. During the summers of 1914 and 1915, he worked as a reporter for the ...

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Walker, Maggie L. (15 July 1867–15 December 1934), educator, social activist, and bank president, was born Maggie Lena Draper in Richmond, Virginia, the daughter of Elizabeth Draper, a former slave, and Eccles Cuthbert, an Irish-American journalist. Her natural parents could not marry. (The Virginia law prohibiting the marriage of mixed-race couples was overturned in 1967, a century after Maggie's birth.) In 1868 Elizabeth Draper married William Mitchell, a mulatto butler who, like herself, was employed by the wealthy abolitionist and Union spy ...

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Wright, Richard Robert, Sr. (16 May 1855–02 July 1947), educator and banker, was born in Whitfield County, Georgia, the son of Robert Waddell and Harriet (maiden name unknown), both slaves. His father, of mixed African and Cherokee descent, was the coachman on a plantation where his mother was a house servant. When Richard was two years old, his father escaped to free territory. Richard and his mother were taken by their slave owner to Cuthbert, Georgia, where she married Alexander Wright and had two children. After emancipation Harriet Wright moved with her three children to Atlanta to take advantage of the recent opening of a Freedman’s Bureau School for Negroes. While she supported the family by running a boarding house, Richard entered Storrs School, which was run by the American Missionary Association. In 1866 General ...