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Ford, Paul Leicester (23 March 1865–08 May 1902), historian and novelist, was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Gordon Lester Ford, a businessman and political figure, and Emily Ellsworth Fowler, a poet. As a baby Ford suffered a tragic fall that left him with a severely deformed spine, the pain from which would plague him all his life. Moreover, the nature of the injury dictated that Ford wear a special harness as a child. As a result he received very little formal schooling; instead, he was tutored at home and allowed the free run of his father’s private library of more than 50,000 volumes, including perhaps the largest private collection of Americana in the world. At age eleven he acquired a small printing press, with which he began publishing compilations of historical material gleaned from his father’s library....

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Micheaux, Oscar (02 January 1884–25 March 1951), novelist and motion picture producer, was born near Cairo, Illinois, the son of Calvin Swan Micheaux and Belle Willingham, farmers. This information derives in part from Oscar Micheaux’s death certificate and in part from his semiautobiographical work of fiction, ...

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Renoir, Jean (15 September 1894–12 February 1979), film director, novelist, and playwright, was born in Paris, France, the son of Pierre Auguste Renoir, an impressionist painter, and Aline Charigot. Raised in Paris and Provence, Renoir graduated college in 1913 and became a cavalry officer. With the outbreak of World War I, he went to the front as a second lieutenant, was wounded, and later served as an aerial reconnaissance pilot. Shortly after his father’s death, in 1920 he married Andrée Heuschling, one of Pierre Auguste’s models who soon after, as Catherine Hessling, became the star of Jean’s earliest films. Renoir and Hessling had one child before they separated in the early 1930s....