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Cotzias, George C. (16 June 1918–13 June 1977), physician and neuroscientist, was born in Canea, Crete, the son of Constantin Cotzias, and Katherine Strumpuli. He began his early schooling and his initial medical studies in Athens, Greece. With the outbreak of World War II, he joined the Greek Royal Army, but because his father, then the mayor of Athens, was a leader in the Greek resistance against the Germans, he and his family fled to the United States in 1941....

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Geschwind, Norman (08 January 1926–04 November 1984), neurologist and neuroscientist, was born in New York City, the son of Morris Geschwind and Hanna Ruth Blau. Geschwind lost his father when he was four; his mother raised him and his elder brother Irving, who also became a prominent medical researcher. Geschwind attended the Etz Chaim Yeshiva and then the Boys’ High School in Brooklyn. At the age of sixteen he was admitted to Harvard College on a full scholarship, but he was soon drafted into the infantry during World War II. He returned to Harvard to receive an A.B. in 1947, magna cum laude, and an M.D. in 1951, cum laude. A Moseley Travelling Fellowship and then a U.S. Public Health Service Fellowship allowed him to spend three years with Sir Charles Symonds at the National Hospital in London. There he met Patricia Dougan, whom he married in 1956; they had three children....

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Larsell, Olof (13 March 1886–08 April 1964), medical researcher and educator, was born in Rättvik, Sweden, the son of John Larsell, a railroad worker, and Anna Anderson. Moving to the United States in 1888, Larsell’s father established himself in Tacoma, Washington, and sent for his family in 1891. Larsell attended the Edison School in Tacoma and, for high school, the Vashon Military Academy. He enrolled at McMinnville (now Linfield) College in Oregon in 1907 and graduated in 1910 with a B.S. in zoology. While in college he met Leo Dorcas Fleming, whom he married in June 1911; they had three sons. After his graduation, Larsell was an instructor of biology at Linfield College from 1910 to 1913....

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Louise Hanson Marshall and Michelle E. Osborn

Magoun, Horace Winchell (23 June 1907–06 March 1991), neuroscientist and educator, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Roy Winchell Magoun, an Episcopal clergyman, and Minnie Sheida. Nicknamed “Tid” by his baby sister, he grew up mostly in Rhode Island, where during the First World War his father founded and directed the Seaman’s Church Institute. After graduating in 1929 from Rhode Island State College, Magoun did graduate work at Syracuse University, New York (M.S., 1931), and Northwestern University Medical School, from which he received a Ph.D. in anatomy in 1934. He married Jeanette Jackson in 1931; they had three children....

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O’Leary, James Lee (08 December 1904–25 May 1975), pioneer in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, was born in Tomahawk, Wisconsin, the son of James O’Leary, an engineer turned lawyer, and Mary Whalen. Shortly after O’Leary was born, his mother developed a lung infection, and the family had to move to a drier climate. He grew up in San Antonio, Texas. O’Leary’s father died when the boy was eleven, and his mother began a real estate business to provide for her children. O’Leary did quite well in school and at the age of sixteen entered the University of Chicago. In 1925 he received his bachelor’s degree, and under the influence of Robert R. Bensley of the department of anatomy, he was drawn toward research. With Bensley’s assistance, he received a scholarship to study anatomy and entered the doctoral program at Chicago, remaining in the laboratories of Bensley. Other influential professors at Chicago included ...