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Dall, William Healey (21 August 1845–27 March 1927), natural historian, paleontologist, and malacologist, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Charles Henry Appleton Dall, a Unitarian missionary, and Caroline Wells Healey Dall, the author of numerous publications on women’s rights. Dall’s father became a missionary to India in 1855, which limited the financial resources of his family and ultimately prevented Dall from attending college. Deeply influenced by ...

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Dixon, Roland Burrage (06 November 1875–19 December 1934), anthropologist and natural historian, was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, the son of Louis Seaver Dixon, a physician, and Ellen R. Burrage. Appointed an assistant at the Peabody Museum after graduating from Harvard in 1897, he engaged in the archaeological excavation of burial mounds in Madisonville, Ohio. After earning his M.A. in 1898, he joined the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, doing fieldwork in British Columbia and Alaska. He was also a member of the Huntington Expedition in California in 1899. His 1900 Harvard doctoral dissertation dealt with the language of the Maidu Indians of California. It was included by its de facto supervisor, Columbia anthropologist ...

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Lapham, Increase Allen (07 March 1811–14 September 1875), natural historian, was born in Palmyra, New York, the son of Seneca Lapham, a canal contractor and engineer, and Rachel Allen. Lapham, who was formally educated for only several months, began work alongside his father and brothers on the canals of New York, Kentucky, and Ohio at the age of thirteen. He began as a manual laborer but rapidly rose to become a secretary and surveyor. Increase and his brother Darius shared an interest in the geology and paleontology that they saw exposed daily in the canal cuts. In 1828, at the age of sixteen, Lapham had his first scientific article, a note on the geology of the Louisville and Shippingsport Canal, published in the ...

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Shepard, Charles Upham (29 June 1804–01 May 1886), mineralogist, educator, chemist, and natural historian, was born in Little Compton, Rhode Island, the son of Mase Shepard, a Congregational minister, and Deborah Haskins. Shepard began collecting rocks and minerals while attending grammar school in Providence, Rhode Island. He entered Brown University in 1820, but his father died during his first year, and his mother then moved with her family to Amherst, Massachusetts, where Shepard entered the sophomore class at the newly founded Amherst College....