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Bailey, Pearce (22 July 1902–23 June 1976), neurologist and federal health science administrator, was born in New York City, the son of Pearce Bailey, a prominent neurologist, and Edith L. Black. Bailey’s choice of a career was doubtless influenced by the fact that his physician father was president of the American Neurological Association in 1913 and was a cofounder of the Neurological Institute at Columbia University in New York City. After graduation from Princeton University with an A.B. in 1924, Bailey pursued postgraduate studies at Columbia University, from which he received an M.A. in psychology in 1931. He then studied at the Université de Paris, where he earned a Ph.D. in psychology in 1933; took an honors course in chemistry at the University of London in 1934; and earned an M.D. at the Medical College of South Carolina at Charleston in 1941....

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Carmichael, Leonard (09 November 1898–16 September 1973), experimental psychologist and institutional administrator, was born in Germantown, Pennsylvania, the son of Thomas Harrison Carmichael, a physician, and Emily Leonard, a teacher and administrator. He entered Tufts College in 1917, volunteered as a private in the U.S. Army in 1918, and received his B.S. in biology summa cum laude in 1921. His Ph.D. in psychology was awarded by Harvard University in 1924, and he joined the Princeton University psychology department that same year. While still in graduate school, he was identified as an especially promising scholar, and he rose rapidly through the academic ranks. In 1927 he moved to Brown University as director of the Psychological Laboratory and was promoted to professor the following year....

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Franz, Shepherd Ivory (27 May 1874–14 October 1933), psychologist and administrator, was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, the son of D. W. William Franz and Frances Elvira Stoddard, occupations unknown. In 1890 he entered Columbia University, from which he earned an A.B. in 1894 and a Ph.D. in 1899. His principal supervisor was ...

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Goodpasture, Ernest William (17 October 1886–20 September 1960), scientist and physician, was born near Clarksville, Tennessee, the son of Albert Virgil Goodpasture, Sr., a lawyer, farmer, publisher, and historian, and Jennie Willson Dawson. Goodpasture received a B.A. from Vanderbilt University in 1907. For a year he taught at Allegheny Collegiate Institute, Alderson, West Virginia, then entered Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, where he earned an M.D. in 1912. He remained there in 1912–1913 as a Rockefeller fellow in pathology under ...

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Horsfall, Frank Lappin, Jr. (14 December 1906–19 February 1971), clinician, virologist, and administrator, was born in Seattle, Washington, the son of Frank Horsfall, a physician, and Jessie Laura Ludden. Horsfall first wanted to become an engineer, but by the end of four years of college at the University of Washington, his interests had switched to medicine, and he entered McGill University Medical School in Montreal, Canada, in 1927....

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Rivers, Thomas Milton (03 September 1888–12 May 1962), medical scientist and research administrator, was born in Jonesboro, Georgia, the son of Alonzo Burrill Rivers, a farmer, cotton buyer, and warehouse owner, and Mary Martha Coleman. Rivers spent his childhood on the family farm and received only the barest education at the Middle Georgia Military Academy in Jonesboro. He enrolled at Emory College in Oxford, Georgia, in the fall of 1904, beginning as a “subfreshman” because of the limitations of his previous education. After five years, he graduated first in his class, with a higher average than any previous Emory student....

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Robbins, William Jacob (22 February 1890–05 October 1978), botanist, physiologist, and institution director, was born in North Platte, Nebraska, the son of Frederick Woods Robbins, a schoolteacher and administrator, and Clara Jeanette Federhof, a journalist. When he was two, his family moved to Muncy, Pennsylvania. Robbins graduated from high school in 1906 and then attended Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, graduating in 1910 with Phi Beta Kappa honors. After teaching at Lehigh and at the Mining and Mechanical Institute at Freeland, Pennsylvania, for one year, he entered graduate school at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Originally Robbins planned to train as a plant pathologist and a scientific farmer, but he changed the focus of his studies to plant physiology. He worked as an instructor at Cornell from 1912 to 1916; he earned his doctorate there in 1915. On 15 July 1915, Robbins married Christine Faye Chapman, a botanist who later became a scientific biographer. They had three sons, one of whom, Frederick Robbins, won the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1954....

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Thomas, Lewis (25 November 1913–03 December 1993), physician, biologist, administrator, and writer, was born in Flushing, New York, the son of Joseph Simon Thomas, M.D., and Grace Peck, a nurse. In his memoir, The Youngest Science: Notes of a Medicine Watcher (1983), Thomas describes accompanying his father on house calls as a boy, a habit that proved decisive in his choice of career. After going to school in Flushing and completing his preparatory education at the McBurney School in Manhattan (1927–1929), Thomas attended Princeton University (1929–1933) and Harvard Medical School, graduating cum laude in 1937. He held a variety of posts before his commission as a lieutenant in the U.S. Navy. On 1 January 1941 he married Beryl Dawson in New York; the couple had three daughters. During World War II Thomas was assigned to a Naval Medical Research Unit at the Rockefeller Institute in New York; he was also stationed in Guam and Okinawa (1944–1945), where he conducted research in virology....