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Andrew R. Heinze

Adler, Morris (30 March 1906–11 March 1966), rabbi, was born in Slutsk, Russia, the son of Joseph Adler, a and Jennie Resnick. Adler arrived in the United States with his mother and brother in 1913, joining his father who had settled in New York City two years earlier. A shy and bookish boy, Adler grew up on the Lower East Side, attending a Hebrew elementary school and the DeWitt Clinton High School. He studied at the Hebrew Teachers’ Institute, at the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Yeshiva (later Yeshiva University), and at the City College of New York, from which he graduated in 1928. In 1929 he married Goldie Kadish; the couple had one daughter. By this time Adler had developed a fascination with the idea of helping troubled people, and his wife recalled that he probably would have studied psychiatry if he had not entered the rabbinate. After brief service officiating at an Orthodox synagogue in St. Joseph, Missouri, he decided to enter the Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS). His father, who was the principal of an Orthodox school in Brooklyn, nevertheless supported his son’s decision to seek ordination within the Conservative branch of Judaism. Adler was ordained at the JTS in June 1935....

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Bernstein, Philip Sidney (29 June 1901–03 December 1985), Reform rabbi and Jewish leader, was born in Rochester, New York, the son of Abraham M. Bernstein, a wholesaler, and Sarah Steinberg. As a youth he was an enthusiastic member of Young Judea, a Zionist organization. In 1914 the national Zionist convention met in Rochester; there Bernstein met the leaders of American Zionism, among them his lifelong friend and mentor, ...

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Blaustein, David (05 May 1866–26 August 1912), rabbi, educator, and social worker, was born in Lida, Russian Poland, the son of Isaiah Blaustein and Sarah Natzkovsky. The family was of humble means, and David was eight years old when his father died. Nine years later he ran away from home to the Prussian town of Memel in order to obtain an education. He then journeyed to Schwerin, the capital of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, where he enrolled in a Jewish teacher’s preparatory school under the leadership of Dr. Fabian Feilchenfeld. His intention was to be a cantor-shochet-teacher to the German Jews, but Bismarck’s ban on Russian Jews in Germany forced him to emigrate to America....

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Carlebach, Shlomo (14 January 1925–21 October 1994), Jewish spiritual leader and pioneer of the movement Return to Tradition, was born in Berlin, Germany, the son of Paula Cohn Carlebach and Rabbi Naftali Carlebach. His father, grandfather, and uncles were known rabbis, members of the German-Jewish movement of return to tradition, which attempted to be loyal to the ...

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Cohon, Samuel Solomon (22 March 1888–22 August 1959), Reform rabbi and scholar, was born in Lohi, Minsk, Russia, the son of Solomon Cohon, a shoemaker, and Rachael Leah Starobinetz Kushner. As a young boy in Russia, Cohon was exposed to both classical Jewish learning and, as a reflection of the changing era, a modicum of secular studies. However, Cohon interrupted his childhood education following the Kishniev pogroms of 1903 and, like thousands of other Russian Jews, immigrated to the United States, arriving in 1904. After graduating from Barrington High School in Newark, New Jersey, in 1908, Cohon entered the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, where he was ordained a rabbi in 1912. In that same year he married A. Irma Reinhart; they had one child....

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Eckman, Julius (1805–05 July 1874), rabbi and newspaper editor, was born in Rawicz, in the Polish region of Posen, the son of Wolf Eckman, a forwarding agent, and Esther Cerke. As a young boy, he received a traditional Jewish education at a time when a noted champion of Orthodoxy, Rabbi Akiba Eger, led Posen’s rabbinate. Eckman’s father sent him to London in 1819 in the hope that he could acquire experience in the realm of international merchandising. After three agonizing years on the streets of London, the young boy returned home and convinced his father to allow him to continue his studies in Berlin. Eckman completed his doctoral studies at the Royal Frederick Wilhelm College following a five-year program of study at the University of Berlin. He earned his rabbinic title simultaneously under the tutelage of a variety of traditional Jewish scholars in Berlin and the neighboring city of Prenzlau....

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Einhorn, David (10 November 1809–02 November 1879), Reform rabbi, was born in Dispeck, Bavaria, the son of Maier Einhorn and Karoline (maiden name unknown). Einhorn received a traditional Jewish education at the Fürth yeshiva, which closed its doors in 1824. Considered an exceptional student, he received his rabbinical diploma at seventeen. Despite his father’s early death, he pursued, with his mother’s support, philosophical studies at the universities of Erlangen, Würzburg, and Munich where, like many of his contemporaries, he turned decisively toward religious radicalism. This radicalism included a willingness to dispense with Hebrew, with prayers for Zion and the restoration of the Jerusalem Temple, and with ceremonial laws....

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Eisendrath, Maurice Nathan (10 July 1902–09 November 1973), rabbi and leader of American Reform Judaism, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Nathan Eisendrath, a millinery supplier, and Clara Oesterreicher. Under the influence of Felix Levy, the Reform rabbi of Temple Emanuel in Chicago, Eisendrath decided early on a career in the rabbinate. At the age of sixteen he went to Cincinnati to begin his secular higher education at the University of Cincinnati and, concurrently, his rabbinical studies at Hebrew Union College. Following his ordination in 1926, Eisendrath served congregations in Charleston, West Virginia (1926–1929), and Toronto, Ontario (1929–1943). As a young, aggressive pulpit rabbi, he frequently became embroiled in controversies over such issues as Zionism, anti-Semitism, ritual practice, and local politics. Like many other Reform rabbis of the period, Eisendrath saw himself in the mold of the Hebrew prophets, ever ready to speak his mind publicly for a cause he believed just....

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Feinstein, Moses (03 March 1895–23 March 1986), rabbi and rabbinic scholar, was born Moshe Feinstein in Uzda near Minsk, Belorussia, the son of David Feinstein, a rabbi, and Faya Gittel Davidowitz, whose family also was noted for its rabbinic scholarship. Feinstein’s parents named him Moses (Moshe) because his birthdate on the Jewish calendar (7 Adar 5655) corresponded to the reputed birth of the biblical Moses. One of twelve children, Feinstein’s early life was devoted to the study of Jewish law. Initially educated by his father, who was the head of the Jewish court ( ...

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Felsenthal, Bernhard (02 January 1822–12 January 1908), Jewish theologian, was born in Münchweiler in the Bavarian Palatinate, the son of Simon Felsenthal and Eva Gall. Little is known about his youth and upbringing. As a boy he attended a secular school in nearby Kaiserslautern, Polytechnic High School, and then in 1838 he enrolled at the University of Munich, intending to pursue a career as a civil servant. As a Jew, however, he could not enter the Bavarian state administration, and in 1840, disillusioned about his future prospects, he returned to his home region. Until 1842 he attended a teachers’ seminary in Kaiserslautern and later was employed as a teacher by the Jewish community in Münchweiler. In 1854 Felsenthal left Münchweiler with his father and sister and joined two of his brothers in the United States. Apparently their departure was part of a larger chain migration of Jews from villages in the Bavarian Palatinate to small towns in southeastern Indiana. First settling in Lawrenceburg, Indiana, he was a private teacher. In 1856 he moved to Madison, Indiana, and was a rabbi....

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Freehof, Solomon Bennett (08 August 1892–12 June 1990), rabbi, scholar, and author, was born in London, England, the son of Isaac Freehof and Golda Blonstein. Freehof came to the United States with his mother in 1903, a year and a half after his father and older brother Morris emigrated from England. His family settled in Baltimore where Freehof attended the German-English School, the Talmud Torah, and Baltimore City College. He also studied with Rabbi William Rosenau of Congregation Oheb Shalom, who influenced his decision to enter the Hebrew Union College (HUC) in 1910. Freehof earned his baccalaureate degree from the University of Cincinnati in 1914 and, after his ordination as rabbi in 1915, he joined the HUC faculty. From October 1918 to July 1919 he was given a leave of absence to serve as a chaplain with the American Expeditionary Force in Europe. At the conclusion of his military service, Freehof resumed his academic career at HUC where he became Professor of Rabbinics and Liturgy. He earned a Doctor of Divinity degree from HUC in 1922....

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Geffen, Tobias (01 August 1870–10 February 1970), rabbi and theologian, was born Tuviah Geffen in Kovno, Lithuania, the son of Joseph Geffen, a lumber merchant, and Kuna Rela Strauss, the daughter of a prominent Kovno rabbi. He studied in yeshivot in Kovno, and in Grodno under Rabbi Eliakim Shapiro. In these contemporary centers of Jewish learning, he gained a scholarly reputation through learned discussions and by preparing papers reconciling seemingly conflicting opinions. He was granted ...

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Goldman, Solomon (19 August 1893–14 May 1953), Conservative rabbi, was born in Volhynia, Russia, the son of Abraham Abba and Jeanette Grossman. Brought to the United States as a child, he studied at New York University, Columbia University, the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Yeshiva (now part of Yeshiva University), and the Jewish Theological Seminary, where he was ordained in 1918, having served the previous three years as rabbi of Congregation Petach Tikvah in Brooklyn. (He had received a most unusual recommendation from the chancellor of the seminary, ...

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Goldstein, Herbert S. (08 February 1890–02 January 1970), rabbi, was born Herbert Samuel Goldstein in New York City, the son of Morris Goldstein (born Jacob Joseph Schultz), a clothing manufacturer, and Sarah Miriam Mikler. After receiving his earliest formal educational training at Yeshiva Etz Chaim, an Orthodox Jewish elementary school on the Lower East Side, Goldstein enrolled in public school and continued his secular education at Columbia University, where he received his B.A. in 1911 and his M.A. in Judaica in 1912. Goldstein received ongoing training in traditional Bible and Talmud studies from private tutors before he enrolled in the Jewish Theological Seminary, from which he graduated as a rabbi in 1914. Concomitant with his seminary studies, which taught him the modern Jewish educational, homiletic, and pastoral skills to serve acculturating Jewish immigrants and their children, Goldstein received advanced Talmudic training from downtown immigrant rabbi Shalom E. Jaffe, who awarded him traditional ordination ( ...

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Goldstein, Israel (18 June 1896–11 April 1986), rabbi and Jewish communal leader, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of David Goldstein, a sexton (shammes), and Fannie Silver. When he was five Goldstein journeyed with his ailing mother to her home in Lithuania. He spent the next two and a half years there in traditional Jewish schools (cheder). He earned a B.A. at the University of Pennsylvania (1914) and an M.A. from Columbia University (1917); was ordained a rabbi at the Jewish Theological Seminary, Conservative Judaism’s rabbinical school (1918); and earned a Doctor of Hebrew Letters (1927) for ...

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Gottheil, Gustav (28 May 1827–15 April 1903), rabbi, was born in Pinne, Prussia (now Pnierog, Poland), the son of Bernhard Gottheil and Bertha Adersbach, merchants. Gustav was given the customary education of a promising Jewish child and sent to a yeshivah in Posen (Poznan). In 1847 he was certified as a teacher and served first in Tierschtiegel, a small place near his home. Four years later he moved to Schneidemühl, and in 1854 to Goch, on the Dutch border. In these small towns, which did not have a rabbi to serve the community, it was customary for the Jewish teacher to fill a variety of functions. Thus, early in his career Gottheil assumed rabbinic duties and was often referred to as ...

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Grayzel, Solomon (01 March 1896–12 August 1980), historian and rabbi, was born in Minsk, Russia, the son of Dov-Behr Grayzel, a melamed (teacher) and former student at the renowned Slobodka Talmudic Academy, and Eta Kashdan. In 1908 Grayzel emigrated with his family to the United States, entering City College of New York in 1914 and graduating in 1917. In 1920 he earned an M.A. in sociology from Columbia and in 1927 a Ph.D. from the then Dropsie College. Shortly afterward, he married Sophie Solomon, the daughter of the well-known Conservative Rabbi Elias Solomon. The couple had no children....

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Gutheim, James Koppel (15 November 1817–11 June 1886), rabbi, was born in Menne (in the district of Warburg), Westphalia, the son of Meyer Gutheim, a Hebrew scholar. (His mother’s name is not known.) As a young boy, he received a traditional Jewish education at the Talmud Torah school of Warburg. He later obtained a teacher’s education at the Lehrerseminar, and, simultaneously, he studied with the district’s chief Abraham Sutro, from whom he earned a diploma of Hebraic proficiency. He also studied classics with a Protestant minister in the city of Oberlistingen, where he taught Hebrew. From 1838 to 1842 Gutheim served as a preacher and a teacher in Sedenhorst, Westphalia....

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Heller, Maximilian (31 January 1860–30 March 1929), Reform rabbi, was born in Prague, Bohemia, the son of Simon Heller, a men’s fabric merchant and Talmudist, and Mathilde Kassowitz. The family’s bourgeois circumstances and Simon Heller’s love of Jewish learning enabled Max Heller to obtain both a liberal European education as well as traditional training in Hebrew sources. The Kassowitz family had established Simon Heller in business, but severe financial reverses in the late 1870s motivated the family’s immigration to Chicago, leaving Max Heller to remain in Prague at the Neustadter Gymnasium, where he completed preparatory studies for a proposed medical career. The family’s financial situation, however, did not improve sufficiently to allow Heller to continue with his European education. After his graduation from Gymnasium in 1879, he followed his family to Chicago. Within months he had moved to Cincinnati, where he enrolled in the recently established Hebrew Union College, the first permanent rabbinical seminary in the United States. There he came under the direct tutelage of ...

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Hirsch, Emil Gustave (22 May 1851–07 January 1923), rabbi and civic leader, was born in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the son of Samuel Hirsch, a rabbi, and Louise Michols. In 1866 Hirsch immigrated with his family to Philadelphia, where his father had been called to the pulpit of Reform Congregation Keneseth Israel. Upon graduation from the University of Pennsylvania in 1872, he returned to Europe to pursue advanced work in philosophy and theology at the University of Berlin and then at the University of Leipzig, where he received a doctorate in 1876. At the same time, he embarked upon rabbinical training at the Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums in Berlin, studying with such prominent liberal Jewish scholars as Abraham Geiger and Moritz Lazarus. Upon completion of his studies, Hirsch briefly served congregations in Baltimore (1877–1878) and Louisville (1878–1880), before being called to the prestigious pulpit of Sinai Congregation in Chicago, a position he held until his death. In 1878 he married Mathilda Einhorn in Louisville; her father was Rabbi ...