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Bachman, John (04 February 1790–24 February 1874), clergyman and naturalist, was born in Rhinebeck, New York, the son of Jacob Bachman, a farmer, and Eva (surname unknown but probably Shop). During his boyhood on a farm in Rensselaer County, New York, Bachman developed a keen interest in natural history and read many books on the subject. Around 1803, after tutoring by the local Lutheran minister, Anton T. Braun, Bachman entered college, evidently somewhere in Philadelphia, but a severe attack of tuberculosis compelled him to leave before he earned a degree. While recuperating, Bachman decided to enter the Lutheran ministry, and by 1810, after briefly studying theology with Braun and then with another minister in the local area, he had returned to Philadelphia for advanced training. During that time he also taught school. Upon the death of Braun in 1813, Bachman assumed his former mentor’s pastorate. Soon troubled again by tuberculosis, he decided to move to a warmer climate and accepted a call from St. John’s Lutheran Church, in Charleston, South Carolina, where he assumed his duties early in 1815....

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Morris, John Gottlieb (14 November 1803–10 October 1895), Lutheran pastor, entomologist, and Baltimore cultural leader, was born in York, Pennsylvania, the son of John Samuel Gottlieb Morris, a physician, and Barbara Myers. Raised in a pious middle-class household, Gottlieb, following his father’s death in 1808, lived much of his life in unusually close relationship to his mother and his brother, Charles. After studying at the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University) and graduating from Dickinson College in 1823, he studied theology at Princeton Seminary and at the infant Gettysburg Seminary. He married Eliza Hay in 1827; they had three children....

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Muhlenberg, Henry (17 November 1753–23 May 1815), Lutheran clergyman and botanist, was born Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg in Trappe, Pennsylvania, the son of Heinrich (Henry) Melchior Muhlenberg, a patriarch of the Lutheran church in America, and Anna Maria Weiser, the daughter of the Indian interpreter Conrad Weiser. Henry Muhlenberg, as he signed his letters in English and as he was known to his friends, attended school at his birthplace, later in Philadelphia when the family moved there in 1761, and when only nine was sent with his two older brothers to Halle, in Saxony, at whose orphanage his father had been a teacher. There Muhlenberg learned Latin, Greek, and Hebrew but had only a year at the university. Although the University of Halle had a famous botanical garden, his studies focused on theology and ecclesiastical history....