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Avery, Martha Gallison Moore (06 April 1851–08 August 1929), lecturer and lay Catholic preacher, was born in Steuben, Maine, the daughter of Albion King Paris Moore, a house builder, and Katharine Leighton. She was educated in the village public school and then in a private dame school. When Martha was thirteen years old her mother died and she went to live with her grandfather, Samuel Moore, who was active in local and state politics. This atmosphere may have contributed to Martha’s future political interest. As a young woman she carried on a millinery business in Ellsworth, Maine, where she joined a Unitarian congregation. It was there that she met Millard Avery, a fellow church member. They were married in March 1880; they had one daughter. In 1888 Avery and her daughter moved to Boston to be closer to her husband, who was working as a traveling salesman. That year she joined the newly organized First Nationalist Club of Boston and wrote articles for its publication, ...

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Brownson, Orestes Augustus (16 September 1803–17 April 1876), educator and philosopher, was born in Stockbridge, Vermont, the son of Sylvester Augustus Brownson and Relief Metcalf, farmers. His father died when Brownson was two, and he was placed with a nearby family. The couple reared him in strict Calvinist Congregationalism. At fourteen he rejoined his mother and twin sister in Ballston Spa in upstate New York, where he studied briefly in an academy before going to work in a printer’s office. He had no more formal education. In 1827 he married Sally Healy of Elbridge, New York; they had eight children....

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Shea, John Dawson Gilmary (22 July 1824–22 February 1892), historian of American Catholicism, was born in New York City, the son of James Shea, an educator, and Mary Ann Flannigan. Called by many the “father of American Catholic history,” Shea was educated first at the Sisters of Charity school, then at the Columbia Grammar School, graduating in 1837. After working in business, Shea studied law and was admitted to the New York bar in 1846. That same year he became a member of the New-York Historical Society, having written several articles about Catholic martyrs in the United States....

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Shuster, George Nauman (27 August 1894–25 January 1977), educator and Catholic layman, was born in Lancaster, Wisconsin, the son of Anton Schuster, stone mason, and Elizabeth Nauman. (Shuster later changed the spelling of his surname.) He graduated from the University of Notre Dame in 1915. He served with U.S. Army Intelligence in France during World War I (1917–1919), taught English at Notre Dame for five years, and in 1924 married a former student, Doris Parks Cunningham....