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Anthony, Sister (15 August 1814–08 December 1897), member of the Sisters of Charity and Civil War nurse, was born Mary O’Connell in Limerick, Ireland, the daughter of William O’Connell and Catherine Murphy. After her mother’s death in about 1825, Mary and a sister emigrated to the United States, where they lived with an aunt in Maine. While still quite young, both girls were enrolled in the Ursuline convent in Charlestown, Massachusetts....

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Bennet, Sanford Fillmore (21 June 1836–11 June 1898), physician and writer of popular verses and hymn texts, was born in Eden, New York, the son of Robert Bennet and Sally Kent. After spending his early years in New York, Bennet moved with his family to Lake County, Illinois. By the age of eighteen Bennet was teaching school in Wauconda, Illinois. In 1858 he entered the University of Michigan but did not complete a degree there, deciding instead to accept a position as the head of the Richmond, Illinois school district. After his marriage to Gertrude Crosby Johonnatt, Bennet moved to Elkhorn, Wisconsin, where he became co-owner and editor of the ...

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Bennett, John Cook (03 August 1804–05 August 1867), physician, religious leader, and entrepreneur, was born in Fair Haven, Bristol County, Massachusetts, the son of John Bennett, a shipowner, and Abigail Cook. At his father’s death in 1817, he moved with his mother to Ohio to stay with relatives. In 1825, after a three-year apprenticeship with a physician and an oral examination by an Ohio medical society, Bennett received his M.D. and a license to practice. That year he married Mary Barker; they had three children. There is no evidence supporting his claim to have attended Ohio University or McGill College in Montreal; he did, however, become a Freemason in 1826....

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Caldwell, David (22 March 1725–25 August 1824), Presbyterian minister, self-trained physician, and schoolmaster, was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, the son of Andrew Caldwell and Ann Stewart, farmers. At the age of seventeen Caldwell became a carpenter’s apprentice and four years later a journeyman carpenter. At age twenty-five he experienced a religious conversion and a call to the ministry. He studied at the Reverend ...

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Child, Robert (1613–1654), physician and Remonstrant against Puritan rule in Massachusetts, was born in Kent, England, the son of John Child, a gentleman farmer (mother’s name unknown). He attended Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, receiving his B.A. in 1632 and his M.A. in 1635. He then studied medicine in Europe, first at the University of Leyden and then the University of Padua, from which he received his M.D. on 13 August 1638....

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Coe, George Albert (26 March 1862–09 November 1951), psychologist of religion, religious educator, and political activist, was born in Mendon, New York, the son of the Reverend George W. Coe, a Methodist minister, and Harriet Van Voorhis. He completed the A.B. at the University of Rochester in 1884 and then enrolled in the Boston University School of Theology, where he received the S.T.B. in 1887 and the A.M. in philosophy and world religions in 1888. In 1891, after a year of study at the University of Berlin, he completed a Ph.D. at the Boston University School of All Sciences....

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Dods, John Bovee (26 September 1795–21 March 1872), amateur physician and popular author and lecturer on mesmerism and Spiritualism, was born Johannes Dods Bovee in the town of Florida in Montgomery County, New York, the son of Jacob Mathias Bovee, a farmer and merchant, and Jane Dods. After serving in the War of 1812, he took as his surname Dods, probably out of respect for the maternal uncle who cared for him after his father’s untimely death. Little is known about his early education, but his father’s will stipulated that he “be educated in wreading [ ...

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Thomas A. Dooley. Examining an ill child in northern Laos. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-109669).

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Dooley, Thomas Anthony, III (17 January 1927–18 January 1961), medical missionary, was born in St. Louis, Missouri, the son of Thomas A. Dooley, Jr., a railroad executive, and Agnes Wise. Dooley was raised in a devoutly Catholic, upper middle-class Irish-American family in St. Louis. After enrolling at the University of Notre Dame in 1944, Dooley enlisted in the navy’s corpsman program and served at a naval hospital in New York. In 1946 he returned to Notre Dame and in 1948 entered St. Louis University Medical School, where he was known for impulsive acts of kindness to young hospital patients. A careless student, he was forced to repeat his final year of medical school before graduating near the bottom of his class in 1953. He reenlisted in the navy and served his residency at Camp Pendleton, California, prior to duty at the naval base in Yokusuka, Japan. In August 1954 Dooley was assigned to temporary duty on the USS ...

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Fishberg, Maurice (16 August 1872–30 August 1934), physician, anthropologist, and Jewish community worker, was born in Kamenets-Podolski, Russia, the son of Philip Fishberg and Kate Moverman. Raised in a traditional Jewish household, Fishberg was introduced to modern scientific study in a Russian government school before immigrating to the United States in 1890. He attended the Medical College of New York University, where he received his M.D. in 1897. That same year he married Bertha Cantor; they had two children. Fishberg was initially engaged in private practice on New York’s Lower East Side, later securing a post as chief medical examiner for the city’s United Hebrew Charities. There Fishberg treated immigrant patients who relied on the support of the Jewish community and made recommendations to community leaders on how social conditions and medical care for the Jewish poor could be improved. While at the United Hebrew Charities, Fishberg became concerned with the attempts of immigration restrictionists to paint Jewish immigrants as carriers of disease. His early medical scholarship, therefore, mustered scientific data in an attempt to dispel myths concerning “Jewish pathology,” particularly the common accusation that immigrants were responsible for the spread of tuberculosis. Fishberg demonstrated, in fact, that Jews were more immune to tuberculosis than other immigrants, a fact he attributed to their religious customs and previous exposure to urban life in European towns and cities....

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Gibbons, William (10 August 1781–25 July 1845), physician and Quaker reformer, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of James Gibbons, a teacher, farmer, and conveyancer, and Eleanor Peters. Descended from some of Pennsylvania’s first settlers, Gibbons was privately educated and then attended the University of Pennsylvania, from which he received an M.D. in 1805, having studied with ...

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Guiles, Austin Philip (23 June 1894–13 November 1953), theological educator, was born in Lawrenceville, Pennsylvania, the son of Austin Greenclay Guiles (occupation unknown) and Hanna Davis. After serving with the U.S. Army Ambulance Corps in Italy (1917–1919), Guiles, called “Phil,” earned degrees from Princeton University (A.B., 1921), Columbia University (M.A., 1923), New York’s Union Theological Seminary (B.D., 1925), and the University of Edinburgh (Ph.D., 1934, with a dissertation entitled “Mental Therapy and the Forgiveness of Sins; A Clinical View of the Results of Sin, with Psychological Studies of Religious Leaders …”). He was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry in 1924 and became a Congregationalist in 1939. He served as pastor of Union Church, Palisade, New Jersey (1925–1927), and later as associate to pastors at the Old South Church in Boston (1931–1933). He married Louise Earhart in 1925; they had four children....

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Gulick, Luther Halsey (10 June 1828–08 April 1891), missionary physician and administrator, was born in Honolulu, Hawaii, the eldest son of Peter Johnson Gulick and Fanny Hinckley Thomas, missionaries of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM). After early years in Hawaii, Gulick was sent to the mainland for education. He graduated from Auburn Academy, New York, attended the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons, and on 9 March 1850 received the M.D. from New York University. While a medical student he engaged in city missionary work and began attending lectures at Union Theological Seminary. On 5 October 1851 he was ordained as a Congregational minister at Broadway Tabernacle, New York City. Two weeks later, on 29 October, he married Louisa Mitchell Lewis, who had been educated at Rutgers Seminary, New York City, had spent two winters in North Carolina teaching, and before her marriage was doing city missionary work in New York. They had seven children....

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Hepburn, James Curtis (13 March 1815–21 September 1911), medical missionary, oculist, and lexicographer, was born in Milton, Pennsylvania, the son of Samuel Hepburn, a lawyer, and Ann Clay, the daughter of the Reverend Slator Clay. Hepburn received his early education at home and at the Milton Academy. At the age of fourteen he matriculated as a junior in Princeton College, from which he graduated in 1832. He began his medical studies with Dr. Samuel Pollack of Milton, Pennsylvania, and then attended the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, from which he graduated with an M.D. in 1836. In 1835 he was awarded an A.M. by Princeton College....

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Johnson, Paul Emanuel (19 February 1898–01 September 1974), theological educator and psychologist, was born in Niantic, Connecticut, the son of John Edward Johnson, a Methodist clergyman, and Martha Cadwallander. He attended schools in Waterloo, Iowa, and in 1920 received his A.B. degree from Cornell College in Mt. Vernon, Iowa. In 1921 he was awarded an A.M. degree from the University of Chicago. He received a professional theological degree, the S.T.B., from the Boston University School of Theology in 1923 and in 1928 earned a Ph.D. in philosophy of religion from Boston University. In 1922 he married Evelyn Grant, who provided him with intellectual and emotional support throughout his career; they had two children....

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Judd, Gerrit Parmele (23 April 1803–12 July 1873), physician, medical missionary, and Hawaiian government official and adviser, was born in Paris, New York, the son of Elnathan Judd, Jr., a physician, and Betsey Hastings. Being the eldest son of a physician, Judd took an early interest in the medical profession and attended medical school in Fairfield, Herkimer County, where he received his M.D. in 1825. In 1826 Judd dedicated his life to the missionary cause as directed by the Boston-based Congregational American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM). At this time the board was recruiting missionaries for the third company to join the Sandwich Islands Mission in Hawaii in the fall of 1827....

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Ladd, George Trumbull (19 January 1842–08 August 1921), theologian, philosopher, and psychologist, was born in Painesville, Ohio, the son of Silas Trumbull Ladd, a businessman and treasurer of Western Reserve College, and Elizabeth Williams. Ladd graduated from Western Reserve College in 1864 and from Andover Theological Seminary in 1869. Also in 1869 he married Cornelia Ann Tallman of Bellaire, Ohio; they had four children. He was a minister for nearly a decade, spending two years in a small church in Ohio and eight years in the large Spring Street Congregational Church in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Ladd wrote and read feverishly throughout his life. Having a passion for scholarship, he grew tired of the pastorate and sought freedom in the academic world. He justified this transition by planning a defense of his faith in opposition to the increasingly scientific and secular world. According to his biographer E. S. Mills, “he would serve as the mediator between the old and the new so that the best of both worlds of learning and experience might be preserved.” In 1879 Ladd accepted a post in the department of philosophy at Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine. Two years later he moved to New Haven, Connecticut, and began his long association with Yale University. At Yale, Ladd was appointed professor of moral and mental philosophy....

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Mary Hancock McLean. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B018336).

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McLean, Mary Hancock (28 February 1861–17 May 1930), physician and missionary, was born in Washington, Missouri, the daughter of Elijah McLean, a physician, and Mary Stafford. She enjoyed a privileged childhood. Her father wanted her to succeed academically; he hired a private tutor and provided Mary with an ample allowance throughout her life. At age thirteen she enrolled at Lindenwood College in St. Charles, Missouri. In 1878 she transferred to Vassar College, from which she graduated two years later. McLean aspired to be a physician like her father and was accepted at the University of Michigan Medical School, an institution then more receptive than others to female students....

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Pace, Edward Aloysius (03 July 1861–26 April 1938), Catholic priest and scholar, was born in Starke, Florida, the son of George Edward Pace, a Methodist planter and manufacturer of turpentine, and Margaret Kelly, a Catholic and daughter of the comptroller of the Port of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The first of eight children, Pace attended Duval High School in Jacksonville (1872–1876) and St. Charles College in Ellicott City, Maryland, a preparatory seminary (1876–1880, A.B.). He then became a seminarian at the North American College in Rome, studying philosophy (1880–1882) and theology (1882–1886, S.T.D.) at the Urbanian College. One of his professors was Francesco Satolli, a promoter of the Thomistic revival. Pace was ordained priest on 30 May 1885 for the Diocese of St. Augustine....