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Fay, Jonas (28 January 1737–06 March 1818), frontier revolutionary leader, was born in Hardwick, Massachusetts, the son of Stephen Fay and Ruth Child, farmers and tavernkeepers. After serving briefly in the Seven Years’ War as a clerk, Fay trained himself in the practice of medicine. In 1766 he moved with his family to the frontier town of Bennington, where his father opened the Catamount Tavern, a famous center for radical political action. From 1750 until 1775 the Green Mountain region lay at the center of a jurisdictional conflict between New York and New Hampshire, both of which held charter rights to the area. Jonas Fay quickly became a key participant in the separatist movement seeking to negate the claims of both provinces, serving as secretary of the extralegal conventions that eventually created the state of Vermont. A member of the Green Mountain Boys, Fay was present at the capture of Fort Ticonderoga and served as a surgeon in ...

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Popé (?–1688), principal organizer of the Pueblo revolt (1680) that drove the Spanish from New Mexico for twelve years, principal organizer of the Pueblo revolt (1680) that drove the Spanish from New Mexico for twelve years, was a native of the village of San Juan. Although virtually nothing is known about Popé’s early life, emergence as an important political and religious leader marks his adulthood. Popé (the Tewa name may refer to a ripe plant) lived amid the turmoil created by Spain’s 1598 colonization of New Mexico. By 1680 many of New Mexico’s village-dwelling Pueblo farmers felt victimized by Spanish religious persecution and demands on their labor. Conditions favored the emergence of a leader like Popé, who offered a counterweight to Spanish domination. For traditional leaders, whose secular roles entwined with the religious sphere of Pueblo life, the remedy lay in emphasizing those cultural attributes that set them apart from the Spanish. Accordingly, Popé and those of like mind sought revival of the proven ways of the Pueblo past. It was as a proponent of this policy of cultural renaissance, acting in his capacity as a religious leader of shamanic proportions, that Popé attained influence....