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Brooke, Abraham (1806–08 March 1867), physician and radical reformer, was born at Sandy Spring, Maryland, the son of Samuel Brooke and Sarah Garrigues, farmers. The Brooke family had been leading Quakers in Maryland for several generations, and Abraham attended Quaker schools at Sandy Spring before entering medical college in Baltimore. In 1829 he married Elizabeth Lukens, a fellow Quaker from Sandy Spring; they had three children. When the Hicksite-Orthodox schism took place among Quakers, the Brookes, like most Maryland Friends, sided with the Hicksite group....

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Hartmann, George Wilfred (29 March 1904–11 June 1955), psychologist and pacifist, was born in Union Hill, New Jersey, the son of Herman Carl Hartmann, a roofer and tinsmith, and Veronica Ruff. As a scholarship student at Columbia University (A.B. 1924), Hartmann excelled in German (his major), history, and psychology. Shifting to psychology for its greater opportunities and social utility, he combined graduate study at Columbia (A.M. 1925; Ph.D. 1928) with instructorships there and at Dartmouth College. As a student he met his wife, Esther Leah Norton; they had two children. From 1928 to 1935 he served as a professor of psychology at Pennsylvania State College. In 1935 he returned to New York as a postdoctoral fellow and then became a professor of educational psychology at Teachers College (1936–1949)....

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Spock, Benjamin (02 May 1903–15 March 1998), pediatrician and activist, was born Benjamin McLane Spock in New Haven, Connecticut, the son of Benjamin Ives Spock, an affluent railway lawyer, and Mildred Louise Stoughton Spock. Like his younger brother and four sisters, Spock obtained much of his early education at home under the supervision of his mother. At the age of sixteen, he entered Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, a boarding school for boys, where he placed among the top 5 percent of his class and set a school record in the high jump. He enrolled at Yale University in 1921 and obtained his bachelor's degree in English (with a minor in history) four years later. During his summer vacations, he worked at a home for crippled children in Newington, Connecticut; his experiences there led him to pursue a medical career. As an undergraduate, he rowed on Yale's crew team, nicknamed “Eli,” which won a gold medal for the United States in the 1924 summer Olympics in Paris. He was also inducted as a member of the exclusive secret society Scroll and Key....