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Biemiller, Andrew John (23 July 1906–03 April 1982), labor lobbyist, was born in Sandusky, Ohio, the son of Andrew Frederick Biemiller, a traveling salesman who sold dry goods to small general stores, and Pearl Weber. Andrew Frederick was also chairman of the Republican Committee in Sandusky and a member of the Knights Templar. After her husband’s death in the great flu epidemic in 1918, Pearl Biemiller ran a boardinghouse....

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Carroll, Anna Ella (29 August 1815–19 February 1894), writer and political lobbyist, was born in Somerset County, Maryland, the daughter of Thomas King Carroll, a plantation owner and, later, governor of Maryland, and Julianna Stevenson, daughter of a prominent Baltimore physician. The eldest of nine children, Carroll received an unusually thorough education from her father, including the subjects of history, geography, philosophy, and law. Although little evidence remains of her life prior to midcentury, Carroll was clearly fascinated by politics at a precocious age, writing at fourteen to her governor father, “It is my principle, as well as that of Lycurgus, to avoid ‘mediums’—that is to say people who are not decidedly one thing or the other. In politics they are the inveterate enemies of the state” (Blackwell, ...

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Detzer, Dorothy (01 December 1893–07 January 1981), peace lobbyist, was raised in Fort Wayne, Indiana, the daughter of August Jacob Detzer and Laura Goshorn. She attended the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy for two years but did not complete a college degree. Her family was Episcopalian and patriotic: her mother was in the Red Cross and an officer in the State Council of Defense; her younger brother attended Annapolis and embarked on a naval career; her older brother served with the army in France in World War I as did her twin brother, who was exposed to mustard gas at the battlefront and died a painful death from its effects a few years later. Detzer spent 1914–1918 working in Hull-House, Chicago, where she was inspired by the example of pacifist ...

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Dodd, Bella Visono ( October 1904–29 April 1969), teachers' union lobbyist and lawyer, teachers’ union lobbyist and lawyer, was born Maria Assunta Isabella Visono in Picerno, Italy, southeast of Naples, the daughter of Rocco Visono, a grocer, and Teresa Marsica. She was raised in the nearby village of Avialano by foster parents until she was old enough to join her family in New York City at the age of five. Her family moved several times and finally out of the tenements into a large house in Westchester left to her mother by two elderly women for whom she had worked. Determined to become “an American,” Bella excelled in school, rejected Catholicism, and, after World War I, avidly began reading newspapers....

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Endean, Steve (6 Aug. 1948–4 Aug. 1993), gay rights activist and lobbyist for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) causes, was born Stephen Robert Endean in Davenport, Iowa, to Robert Endean, a salesman, and Marilyn Endean. Raised in a Roman Catholic family, Endean grew up in Rock Island, Illinois; Peoria, Illinois; and Bloomington, Minnesota. After graduating from Lincoln High School in ...

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Galt, John (02 May 1779–11 April 1839), author, lobbyist, and businessman, was born in Irvine, Scotland, the son of John Galt, a shipmaster and trader, and Jean Thomson. Galt left school to begin a career as a merchant at about age sixteen (one of his schoolmates was ...

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Greene, Roger Sherman (29 May 1881–27 March 1947), diplomat, medical administrator, and lobbyist, was born in Westborough, Massachusetts, the son of Daniel Crosby Greene and Mary Jane Forbes, two of the earliest American missionaries to work in Japan. He received his early education in Japan, where he spent most of his life before college. At Harvard University he earned an A.B. in 1901 and an A.M. in 1902....

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Grundy, Joseph Ridgway (13 January 1863–03 March 1961), business leader, lobbyist, and senator, was born in Camden, New Jersey, the son of William Hulme Grundy, a woolens manufacturer, and Mary Lamb Ridgway. Reared in an upper-class Quaker home in Bristol, Pennsylvania, he received a part of his early education at the Moravian School for Boys (Lititz, Pa.) and subsequently spent three years at Swarthmore College (two in its preparatory division). In 1880 he made a grand tour of Europe and after his return began work for his father’s company. In 1885, after working in each of the mill’s operations, he became a wool buyer. Following his father’s death in 1893, he became the company’s head and also the principal stockholder in the Farmers National Bank of Bucks County, originally founded by his great-great-grandfather. Under his leadership, Grundy and Company prospered, soon making him a multimillionaire. He never married....

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Mitchell, Clarence Maurice, Jr. (08 March 1911–18 March 1984), civil rights lobbyist, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of Clarence Maurice Mitchell, a waiter, and Elsie Davis. He attended St. Katherine’s Episcopal Church and later became a member of the Sharp Street Memorial Methodist Church. From Douglass High School in Baltimore, he entered Lincoln University in Pennsylvania in 1928 and was graduated in 1932 with a B.A. In 1938 Mitchell married Juanita Elizabeth Jackson, daughter of Keiffer Bowen Jackson and Lillie May Jackson of Baltimore; they had four children. President of the Baltimore branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and Maryland State Conference of NAACP Branches, Lillie Jackson spearheaded the freedom movement in the state and became a celebrated historical figure....

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Roosevelt, Kermit (16 February 1916–08 June 2000), intelligence operative, businessman, lobbyist, and writer, was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the first child of Kermit Roosevelt, Sr., a businessman, soldier, and explorer, and Belle Wyatt Willard Roosevelt, a businesswoman and political activist who came from a socially prominent family. He was a grandson of President ...

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Swank, James Moore (12 July 1832–21 June 1914), newspaper editor, statistician, and lobbyist, was born in Loyalhanna Township, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, the son of George W. Swank, a local businessman, and Nancy Moore. Swank spent 1849–1850 at Jefferson College, a preparatory school in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, after which he taught school, clerked in his father’s store, read law, and edited a Whig newspaper, the ...

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Ward, Samuel (27 January 1814–19 May 1884), adventurer and lobbyist, was born in New York City, the son of Samuel Ward, a banker, and Julia Rush Cutler. He was sent to Round Hill School in Northampton, Massachusetts, and displayed an aptitude for languages and mathematics. He graduated from Columbia College in 1831. Despite misgivings, Ward’s father allowed his precocious son to study and travel in Europe. For four years he subsidized fellow students, dined exquisitely, took music lessons, attended performances, dallied with women, wrote a thesis in Latin on mathematical equations that earned him a Ph.D. from the University of Tübingen, acted as an unofficial diplomatic secretary, accumulated a library, and acquired a network of acquaintances. His serendipitous meeting with ...

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Wilson, E. Raymond (20 September 1896–27 June 1987), peace educator and lobbyist, was born Edward Raymond Wilson on Cloverdale Farm near Morning Sun, Iowa, the son of Charles Brown Wilson and Anna Jane Wilson, farmers. Wilson’s parents were devout Presbyterians. After graduating from high school, Wilson worked full-time on the family farm for a year. He entered Iowa State College in 1916 but left to return to his family’s farm when the United States entered World War I. Grounded in the prevailing “just war” view, Wilson enlisted in the navy in July 1918 and served in the Chicago area until he was mustered out the following December. He graduated from Iowa State in 1921 with a B.S. in animal husbandry, and he received an M.S. in vocational education in 1923. Wilson, who was president of the student Young Men’s Christian Association at Iowa State in 1921, was increasingly challenged by the pacifist view, particularly as articulated by Christian writer Kirby Page at the 1923 Student Volunteer Convention in Indianapolis....