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Campbell, Angus (10 August 1910–15 December 1980), psychologist and educator, was born Albert Angus Campbell in Leiters, Indiana, the son of Albert Alexis Campbell, a public school superintendent, and Orpha Brumbaugh. He grew up in Portland, Oregon, and received a B.A. in 1931 and an M.A. in 1932 in psychology at the University of Oregon. In 1936 he completed his doctoral training as an experimental psychologist at Stanford University, where he trained under psychologists Ernest R. Hilgard and ...

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Cantril, Hadley (16 June 1906–28 May 1969), psychologist and public opinion researcher, was born Albert Hadley Cantril in Hyrum, Utah, the son of Albert Hadley Cantril, a physician, and Edna Mary Meyer. He grew up in Douglas, Wyoming, and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1928. He then spent two years studying in Berlin and Munich. After receiving his Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard in 1931, he served for one year as instructor of sociology at Dartmouth. In 1932 he married Mavis Katherine Lyman; they had two children. In the fall after his marriage he returned to Harvard as instructor in psychology. He then moved to Teachers College, Columbia University, in 1935, the year that he coauthored his first book, ...

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Gallup, George Horace (18 November 1901–26 July 1984), public opinion polling expert, was born in Jefferson, Iowa, the son of George Henry Gallup, a land speculator, and Nettie Davenport. In high school he founded the school newspaper with money he earned managing a small dairy farm. At the State University of Iowa he was editor of the college newspaper and founder of Quill and Scroll, the national high school journalism honor society. After completing his B.A. in 1923, he became an instructor in the university’s newly formed school of journalism. He earned a master’s degree in 1925 and a Ph.D. in 1928, in applied psychology. Gallup married Ophelia Smith Miller in 1925; they had three children....

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Elmo Roper. Courtesy of the Nebraska State Historical Society.

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Roper, Elmo (31 July 1900–30 April 1971), market researcher and public opinion analyst, was born Elmo Burns Roper, Jr., in Hebron, Nebraska, the son of Elmo Burns Roper, a banker, and Coco Malowney. He attended the University of Minnesota (1919–1920) and the University of Edinburgh (1920–1921), but he did not receive a degree. In 1922 he married Dorothy Shaw; they had two children....