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Ayllón, Lucas Vázquez de (1480?–18 October 1526), Spanish judge and founder of the first Spanish colony in North America, was born at Toledo, Spain, the son of Juan Vázquez de Ayllón, a member of a distinguished Mozarabic family, and Inés de Villalobos. Lucas was educated in the law, earning the ...

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Bollan, William (1710?–1782), colonial agent and lawyer, was born in England and emigrated from there to America while a teenager. He pursued a legal career by studying as an apprentice under the tutelage of Massachusetts attorney Robert Auchmuty. Little is known of Bollan’s early life and career. However, by 1733 he had begun to gain prominence as an attorney, as evidenced by his acquisition of Harvard College and Boston’s Anglican parish, King’s Chapel, as clients. Bollan was an Anglican, which placed him in a religious minority in Congregational-dominated Boston. By the mid-1730s he had begun to venture into land speculation in both Massachusetts and Rhode Island....

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Dulany, Daniel (1685–05 December 1753), lawyer and officeholder, was born in Queen’s County, Ireland, the son of Thomas Dulany (occupation unknown). His mother’s name is unknown. He is often called Daniel Dulany, the Elder, to distinguish him from his son Daniel Dulany, Jr....

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Gookin, Daniel (1612–19 March 1687), colonial magistrate and soldier, was the son of Daniel Gookin and Mary Byrd, the daughter of Richard Byrd, canon of Canterbury Cathedral in Kent, England. His father’s family had been in Kent for many generations; Daniel may have been born in Kent or in Carrigaline, County Cork, Ireland, where his father held lands and was an important figure among the English Protestants who had settled in the southern part of Ireland early in the seventeenth century. The elder Gookin also invested in land in Virginia and went over himself in 1621 with fifty employees, passengers, and cattle. He returned to England but later sent Daniel and his younger brother John to manage his lands and to make their own way in the wilderness. Daniel first appears in the Virginia records in 1630 at age eighteen. In 1634–1635 he was granted land in his own right, 2,500 acres in the Nansemond area on the south side of the James River. By 1639 he was a widower; the year of his marriage and the name of his wife are not known. That year he returned to England, where he married Mary Dolling of London. They had nine children. Early in 1641 they returned to Virginia to settle on his property. He was made a burgess and a representative to the Virginia Assembly from Upper Norfolk County and was also appointed captain of train bands, the local militia....

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Ingersoll, Jared (23 June 1722–25 August 1781), lawyer and royal official, was born in Milford, Connecticut, the son of Jonathan Ingersoll, a joiner, and Sarah Miles. Ingersoll went to Yale, graduating in 1742 but able to stay on at the college for another year of study, thanks to a Berkeley scholarship. He then prepared for the law and in 1743 married Hannah Whiting, the daughter of a prominent New Haven family....

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Jamison, David (1660–26 July 1739), colonial lawyer and provincial official, was born in Scotland and probably went to college there. Nothing is known for certain regarding his parentage or early life. His coming to New York in 1685 was hardly auspicious. Jamison was expelled from his native country and transported to America because of his association with religious zealots known as the “Sweet Singers.” Their defiance of both Anglican orthodoxy and the restored Stuart monarchy landed them in jail, from whence they were deported. However, his arrest in Scotland, transportation to New York, and subsequent servitude apparently wrought a change in Jamison’s attitude. Far from remaining the religious and political outcast, he diligently sought acceptance....

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Ludlow, George Duncan (1734–13 November 1808), judge and Loyalist official, was born in Queens County, Long Island, New York, the son of Gabriel Ludlow, a wealthy merchant, and Frances Duncan. The family was well established in the province, with strong ties to the Anglican church and to the powerful De Lancey political faction. George Ludlow’s younger brother was ...

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Ludlow, Roger (1590–1664), colonial official and jurist, was the son of Thomas Ludlow of Maiden Bradley, Wiltshire, and Jane Pyle. Educated at Balliol College, Oxford in 1610 and the Inner Temple in 1612, he married Mary Endicott, the sister of John Endicott, an early governor of Massachusetts Bay. The couple had at least six children. In early 1630 Ludlow was elected an assistant of the Bay company, at which time he removed himself and his family to the new colony, helping to establish the town of Dorchester. Regularly reelected an assistant, Ludlow was chosen deputy governor in 1634. He was left out of office in 1635, apparently because of differences with more liberal political developments in the colony concerning the popular election of magistrates, and perhaps because of his plans to move again, this time to the Connecticut River along with other Massachusetts settlers. One of the founders of Windsor, he served during the next year (1636–1637) under the authority of a Massachusetts commission as presiding magistrate for the three towns that were forming the nucleus of Connecticut: Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield. He was reelected a magistrate or assistant for the next seventeen years, except when in 1642 and 1648 he served as deputy governor of Connecticut....

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Morgan, Sir Henry (1635–25 August 1688), buccaneer, planter, and lieutenant governor, was born in Llanrhymny, Wales, the son of Robert Morgan. His mother’s name is not known. Little is known of Morgan’s years in Wales. In a letter that he wrote to the Lords of Trade in 1680, Morgan said of his education that he “left the schools to [ ...

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Nicolls, Matthias (1626– July 1693), New York government official and jurist, was born in Plymouth, England, and baptized on 29 March 1626, the son of Matthias Nicolls, a minister of the Church of England, and Martha Oakes. The Reverend Mr. Nicolls, who was from the landed gentry, died in 1631. Martha Nicolls moved to Plympton with her son, who in time studied law in London at two Inns of Court, Inner Temple and Lincoln’s Inn. He was admitted to the bar at Lincoln’s Inn in 1649 and for the next fifteen years was a barrister in London. During this period he married Abigail Johns; they had at least four children....