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Bristol, Mark Lambert (17 April 1868–13 May 1939), naval officer and diplomat, was born in Glassboro, New Jersey, the son of Mark Lambert Bristol and Rachel Elizabeth Bush, farmers. He was appointed to the U.S. Naval Academy in 1883 and graduated in 1887. After service aboard the converted bark ...

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Holcomb, Thomas (05 August 1879–24 May 1965), commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps and diplomat, was born in New Castle, Delaware, the son of Thomas Holcomb, an attorney, state legislator, and civil servant, and Elizabeth Hindman Barney. The family moved to Washington in 1893 when his father joined the Treasury Department. Holcomb graduated from high school in 1897 and three years later was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Marine Corps. After completing the marines’ School of Application, Holcomb served from September 1902 to April 1903 with a seagoing battalion attached to the North Atlantic Fleet. In 1903 he was promoted to first lieutenant and stationed in the Philippines in 1904 and 1905 and at the U.S. legation in Peking (Beijing) from 1905 through 1906. He returned to China in 1908 as a naval attaché. Holcomb, by that time a captain, oversaw the training of the legation’s marine detachment, placing particular emphasis—as he would throughout his career—on rifle marksmanship. An expert marksman himself, he had served as a member of the U.S. Marine Corps Rifle Team in 1901, 1902, 1903, 1907, and 1908, and would do so again in 1911. Holcomb returned to the United States in 1914 and became inspector of target practice at corps headquarters. He married Beatrice Miller Clover in 1916; the couple had one son....

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Joy, Charles Turner (17 February 1895–06 June 1956), naval officer and diplomat, was born in St. Louis, Missouri, the son of Duncan Joy, a cotton broker, and Lucy Barlow Turner. Educated at private schools in St. Louis, New York, and Pennsylvania, and appointed to the U.S. Naval Academy from Illinois’s Twenty-second District in July 1912, Joy received his ensign’s commission in June 1916....

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Shufeldt, Robert Wilson (21 February 1822–07 November 1895), naval officer and diplomat, was born in Red Hook, New York, the son of George Adam Shufeldt, a lawyer, and Mary Howey Wilson. He attended Middlebury College in Vermont from 1837 to 1839 but before graduating, joined the navy. After cruises in the Home Squadron (1839–1840) and the Brazil Squadron (1840–1843), he graduated as a midshipman from the Naval School, Philadelphia, in June 1845. Service followed with the Coast Survey (1845–1846, 1849) and the West African Squadron (1846–1848). In 1848 he married Sarah Hutchins Abercrombie; the couple had three sons who survived infancy (three children did not). After placement during 1850–1851 as acting lieutenant aboard ...

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Standley, William Harrison (18 December 1872–25 October 1963), chief of naval operations and ambassador to the USSR, was born at Ukiah, California, the son of Jeremiah M. Standley, a sheriff of Mendocino County, and Sarah Jane Clay. He entered the U.S. Naval Academy in 1891, graduated in 1895, and earned an ensign’s commission in 1897 after serving the requisite two years duty at sea. During the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection, Standley served with the Asiatic Fleet. He obtained his first command, a cruiser, in 1915 and took command of his first battleship four years later. He attended the Naval War College in 1920–1921. Known as a resolute leader, Captain Standley was boosted to flag rank ahead of several other captains who were higher on the selection list when he became rear admiral in 1927. He became vice admiral five years later....