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Bonneville, Benjamin Louis Eulalie de (14 April 1796–12 June 1878), explorer and army officer, was born in or near Paris, France, the son of Nicolas de Bonneville, a writer-editor, and Margaret Brazier. During the French Revolution Bonneville’s father was prominent in the Cercle Social...

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Connor, Patrick Edward (02 March 1820?–17 December 1891), soldier, entrepreneur, and politician, was born Patrick Edward O’Connor in County Kerry, Ireland. His exact birth date and the names of his parents are in question. As a teenager, he emigrated with his parents to New York City, where he probably briefly attended public school....

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Cooke, Philip St. George (13 June 1809–20 March 1895), soldier and author, was born in Leesburg, Virginia, the son of Stephen Cooke, a physician, and Catherine Esten. Cooke was educated in local schools near his parents’ home in Virginia. In 1823 he received an appointment to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York. He graduated in 1827 and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the infantry. From 1827 to 1833 he served in a variety of infantry assignments on the western frontier, including brief service in the ...

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Crittenden, Thomas Leonidas (15 May 1819–23 October 1893), lawyer and soldier, was born in Russellville, Kentucky, the son of John J. Crittenden, a lawyer and statesman, and Sarah “Sally” Lee. After unsuccessful business ventures in New Orleans and with a brother-in-law in Louisville, he studied law and was admitted to the Kentucky bar in 1840. Appointed a commonwealth’s attorney in 1843, he occasionally opposed his famous father in courtroom appearances. Crittenden married his stepsister Kittie Todd, probably in 1840. Their only son, Lieutenant John J. Crittenden, was killed with ...

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Thomas L. Crittenden. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-B8172-1730).

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Crook, George (08 September 1828–21 March 1890), soldier, was born near Taylorsville, Ohio, the son of Elizabeth Matthews and Thomas Crook, farmers. Entering the U.S. Military Academy in 1848, Crook graduated in 1852 and served until 1861 in California and Oregon fighting hostile American Indians. Fascinated by American Indians, Crook’s studious interest helped him in combat against them where other officers failed. Most important, he learned and appreciated that American Indians fought to preserve their cultures and lands....

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Emory, William Hemsley (07 September 1811–01 December 1887), soldier, surveyor, and cartographer, was born on the family plantation, “Poplar Grove,” in Queen Annes County, Maryland, the son of Thomas Emory and Anna Maria Hemsley. In July 1826 William Emory enrolled in the United States Military Academy, where his classmates, to whom he was known as Bold Emory, included ...

Article

Herman Hattaway and Eric B. Fair

Hitchcock, Ethan Allen (18 May 1798–05 August 1870), soldier and author, was born in Vergennes, Vermont, the son of Samuel Hitchcock, a U.S. Circuit Court judge, and Lucy Caroline Allen, the daughter of Ethan Allen. Though raised in affluence, Ethan Hitchcock was compelled to make a career decision at the age of sixteen because of the death of his father. With family connections to the army, Hitchcock sought appointment to the U.S. Military Academy. He entered the academy on 11 October 1814 and graduated as a third lieutenant of artillery on 17 July 1817. He was in garrison duty for the next seven years....

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Ethan Allen Hitchcock Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ6-2078).

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Howard, Oliver Otis (08 November 1830–26 October 1909), soldier, government official, and educator, was born in Leeds, Maine, the son of Rowland Bailey Howard and Eliza Otis, farmers. As a boy Howard worked in the company of a young black farmhand, an experience to which he later attributed his broadmindedness in racial matters. Howard graduated from Bowdoin College in 1850 and entered the U.S. Military Academy. He graduated from West Point in 1854, ranked fourth in his class. In 1855 Howard married Elizabeth Ann Waite; the couple had seven children. He first served at the federal arsenals in New York and Maine and then as an ordnance officer in Florida. In 1857 Howard returned to West Point to teach mathematics. The same year he experienced the religious conversion that would earn him such sobriquets as “the Christian Soldier.” His distaste for alcohol and profanity hardly endeared him to many of his fellows. ...