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Bronner, Augusta Fox (22 July 1881–11 December 1966), psychologist and expert in juvenile delinquency, was born in Louisville, Kentucky, the daughter of Gustave Bronner, a wholesale milliner, and Hanna Fox. Both of his parents were of German ancestry. Bronner’s maternal grandfather had been the founder of Louisville’s Reform Jewish Temple, and the Bronner family was active in the town’s Jewish community. Augusta, the middle child of three, was encouraged by her open-minded family to pursue a career instead of confining herself to housework....

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Kirchwey, George Washington (03 July 1855–03 March 1942), lawyer, criminologist, and professor, was born in Detroit, Michigan, the son of Michael Kirchwey, a livestock and wholesale meat dealer, and Maria Anna Lutz. His father had actively participated in the German revolution of 1848. Educated in various private and public schools in both Chicago and Albany, Kirchwey graduated in 1875 as class valedictorian and enrolled at Yale University. Four years later he received his B.A. with honors, and after studying at Yale Law School and later at Albany Law School, he was admitted to the state bar in New York in 1882. In 1883 he married Dora Child Wendell; they had four children. ...

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Smith, Bruce (23 May 1892–18 September 1955), criminologist and police department consultant, was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Clarence B. Smith, a banker and real estate promoter, and Jessie Annin. After graduating from high school in Brooklyn, he studied at Wesleyan University but was such a vocal critic of compulsory chapel attendance that he was expelled in 1913 during his senior year. He entered Columbia University and graduated in 1914 with a B.A. He married Mary Belle Rowell in 1915; they had two children. Smith earned his M.A. and LL.B. at Columbia in 1916 but never took the bar examination. While a student, he worked at the New York Bureau of Municipal Research, located at Columbia and under the direction of ...