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Roberts, Frank H. H., Jr. (11 August 1897–23 February 1966), archeologist and government administrator, was born Frank Harold Hanna Roberts, Jr., in Centerburg, Ohio, the son of Frank Harold Hurd Roberts, a university professor and administrator, and Lou Ella Hanna.

Roberts received undergraduate training at Las Vegas (N.M.) Normal College and the University of Denver, where he received his B.A. in 1919. He majored in English and history. After a brief career as a Las Vegas journalist, he studied political science at the University of Denver, earning his M.A. in 1921, and at the same time studying anthropology under Etienne B. Renaud. He spent the next three years serving as an instructor of archeology at the University of Denver, performing archeological field work under Etienne B. Renaud and Jean Allard Jeançon, and working with the State Historical and Natural History Society of Colorado (whose collections would later form part of the Colorado State Museum holdings). Roberts then undertook graduate work in anthropology at Harvard University, where he received his M.A. in 1926 and his Ph.D. in 1927. He joined the staff of the Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) in 1926, and soon after he received his doctorate he married Linda Buchardt. The couple had no children....

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Vaillant, George Clapp (05 April 1901–13 May 1945), archaeologist, museum administrator, and cultural attaché, archaeologist, museum administrator, and cultural attaché, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of George Wightman Vaillant, a stockbroker, and Alice Vanlora Clapp. In 1918 he enlisted in the marines and served until World War I ended. Vaillant then entered Harvard, intending to study literature and history. He became interested in anthropology and archaeology serendipitously during the summer after his freshman year. His college friend Singleton Moorehead, the son of archaeologist Warren K. Moorehead, invited Vaillant to spend the summer working on his father’s archaeological excavation of a Native American burial site in Maine for the Peabody Museum. Vaillant’s interest was piqued during this experience. When he returned to Harvard as a sophomore, he concentrated in anthropology and archaeology. By the time he was twenty-six years old Vaillant had earned three degrees in anthropology from Harvard (A.B., magna cum laude, 1922; M.A., 1925; Ph.D., 1927). His unpublished but widely circulated doctoral dissertation “The Chronological Significance of Mayan Ceramics” was a pioneering work on the chronology and cultural history of the Maya. In this research, embracing a multidisciplinary approach, Vaillant synthesized both the techniques and findings of ethnology, ethnohistory, and archaeology. The Holmul sequence he developed was the first ceramic chronology of this area....