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Armstrong, John (13 October 1717–09 March 1795), soldier, surveyor, and member of the Continental Congress, was born in County Fermanagh, Ulster, Ireland. The identities of his Scotch-Irish parents and circumstances of his youth are unclear, but his father may have been named James. A trained surveyor, John Armstrong evidently received some education fairly early in life. Sometime in the mid-1740s Armstrong immigrated to America, settling initially in Delaware and then in Pennsylvania, where he worked as a surveyor. It was probably at some point after his arrival in America that he married Rebeckah Armstrong. The couple had two sons (the younger, ...

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De Brahm, William Gerard (20 August 1718–03 July 1799?), surveyor-cartographer and military engineer, was born in Koblenz, Germany, the son of Johann Phillip von Brahm, court musician to the elector of Triers, and Johannetta Simonet. A member of the lesser nobility, De Brahm secured a broad education that included exposure to the burgeoning experimental sciences of his day. After attaining the rank of captain engineer in Charles VII’s imperial army, De Brahm married and renounced the Roman Catholic faith. Forced to resign his army commission because of his renunciation, he and his bride, Wilhelmina de Ger, found themselves nearly destitute....

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Emory, William Hemsley (07 September 1811–01 December 1887), soldier, surveyor, and cartographer, was born on the family plantation, “Poplar Grove,” in Queen Annes County, Maryland, the son of Thomas Emory and Anna Maria Hemsley. In July 1826 William Emory enrolled in the United States Military Academy, where his classmates, to whom he was known as Bold Emory, included ...

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L’Enfant, Pierre Charles (02 August 1754–14 June 1825), engineer and architect, was born in Paris, France, the son of Pierre L’Enfant, painter of military subjects for the French Crown, and Marie-Charlotte Leullier. In 1771 he was listed as his father’s student at the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture, the only known record of his education. L’Enfant arrived in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in April 1777 aboard the ...

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Mangin, Joseph François (17 December 1764–after 1818), engineer and architect, was born in Chalons-sur-Marne, France, the son of Joseph-Denis Mangin, surgeon, and Jeanne-Marie-Anne Morin Delaterasse. He served as engineer in the French army, spending eight years mapping the northern part of Santo Domingo until the revolt of 1793. He was married to Theresa Bulland; they had one child....

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William Henry (Bill) Mauldin. Bill Mauldin holding Pulitzer Prize-winning cartoon, 1959. Photograph by Bob Briggs. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-DIG-ppmsca-03232).

Article

Mauldin, William Henry (29 October 1921–22 January 2003), Pulitzer Prize–winning editorial cartoonist, was born in Mountain Park, just east of Alamogordo, New Mexico, the second son of Sidney Albert Mauldin, a wrench salesman, outdoor privy builder, and odd-jobman, and Edith Katrina (Bemis) Mauldin. Bill was often confined to his bed by rickets as a kid and drew pictures of his daydreams. At age thirteen he took a correspondence course for cartoonists. His family traveled southwest and northern New Mexico looking for work during the Great Depression. His parents divorced when he was seventeen years old, and he headed to Phoenix, Arizona, on his own. A loan from his maternal grandmother paid his tuition to the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts in 1939, where he studied under the ...

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Meigs, Montgomery Cunningham (03 May 1816–02 January 1892), army officer, was born in Augusta, Georgia, the son of Charles Meigs, a physician, and Mary Montgomery. Soon after the family relocated to Philadelphia. In 1831 Meigs briefly attended the University of Pennsylvania there. He transferred to the U.S. Military Academy the following year and on 1 July 1836 graduated fifth in his class of forty-nine. As a second lieutenant, Meigs was initially posted with the First Artillery Regiment but subsequently requested and received transfer to the engineers. He engaged in various construction projects over the next sixteen years, commencing with Fort Mifflin near Philadelphia. He also worked on navigational improvements along the Mississippi River with Lieutenant ...

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Otis, George Alexander (12 November 1830–23 February 1881), U.S. Army medical officer, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of George Alexander Otis, a lawyer, and Anna Maria Hickman. His mother remained for some time in Boston after his father died in 1831 before returning to her native Virginia, and Otis attended Boston Latin School before entering school in Fairfax County, Virginia. He received a B.A. from Princeton College in 1849 and entered medical school at the University of Pennsylvania that same year, after spending the summer studying with a local physician. He married Pauline Clark Baury in 1850; they had two children. In 1851 Otis received both an M.A. from Princeton and his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania. He then studied ophthalmic and general surgery in Paris, France, until the spring of 1852, when he returned to the United States and opened a private practice in Richmond, Virginia....

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George B. Post Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-104303).