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Ambler, James Markham Marshall (30 December 1848–30 October 1881), naval surgeon and explorer, was born in Markham, Virginia, the son of Richard Cary Ambler, a physician, and Susan Marshall. At age sixteen Ambler became a volunteer in the Twelfth Virginia Cavalry. He studied a premedicine curriculum at Washington College in 1865–1867 and then entered the University of Maryland. After acquiring a medical degree in 1870, he practiced in Baltimore until his appointment as an assistant surgeon in the U.S. Navy. During 1874–1875, he was stationed in the North Atlantic. In 1877 he joined the staff of the Naval Hospital at Norfolk, Virginia....

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Craik, James (1730–06 February 1814), physician and military surgeon, was born on his father’s estate near Dumfries, Scotland, the son of Robert Craik, a member of the British Parliament; the name of his mother is unknown. Little information about his early life is available. Although his parents were apparently not married, he was acknowledged by his father, who assumed responsibility for his education. After studying medicine at the University of Edinburgh, he joined the British army as a surgeon. Shortly after being sent to the West Indies, he resigned his position and sailed for Virginia in 1751. After a short period in the Norfolk area, he moved to Winchester, Virginia....

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Hamilton, John Brown (01 December 1847–24 December 1898), surgeon general of the United States, was born in Jersey County, Illinois, the son of Benjamin Brown, a clergyman, and Martha Hamilton. Of Scottish descent, the family founded and ran a country academy that offered students a classical education. Hamilton attended this school in his early years, helping out with the family farm in his free time. When he turned sixteen, he arranged to be apprenticed to Joseph Hamilton, a local physician, apprenticeship being a common path in those days to a career as a doctor. After a year of apprenticeship, Hamilton joined the G Company of the sixty-first Illinois Regiment and served throughout the rest of the Civil War....

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Lawson, Thomas (29 August 1789?–15 May 1861), surgeon general of the U.S. Army Medical Department, was born in Virginia, the son of Thomas Lawson and Sarah Robinson. Nothing is known of his childhood or education, but in all likelihood he attended neither college nor medical school but received his medical education through apprenticeship with a local physician. He never married....

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Lovell, Joseph (22 December 1788–17 October 1836), military surgeon, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of James S. Lovell and Deborah Gorham. He received the A.B. degree from Harvard College in 1807 and, after studying medicine as an apprentice to a local physician, received the M.D. degree in 1811, ranking first in the first class to graduate from the Harvard Medical School....

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Mearns, Edgar Alexander (11 September 1856–01 November 1916), ornithologist, mammalogist, and army surgeon, was born in Highland Falls, New York, the son of Alexander Mearns and Nancy Carswell. He attended Donald Highland Institute in Highland Falls. When still very young, he grew interested in local plants and animals and planned a book on the natural history of the area, which he was unable to complete at the time. Many years later, in 1898, he did publish a fifty-page account of some of his conclusions as “A Study of the Vertebrate Fauna of the Hudson Highlands, with observations on the Mollusca, Crustacea, Lepidoptera, and the Flora of the Region” in the ...