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Carroll, James (05 June 1854–16 September 1907), bacteriologist and military physician, was born in Woolwich, England, the son of James Carroll, a royal artillery gunner, and Harriet Chiverton. Having attended the Albion House Academy until the age of fifteen, Carroll left Britain for Canada, where he is said to have been a blacksmith, railroad laborer, and backwoodsman. He migrated to the United States in 1874 and volunteered for the U.S. Army, serving with the First Infantry in Montana. He reenlisted in 1879 and eventually was appointed hospital steward at Fort Douglas in Utah....

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Dick, George Frederick (21 July 1881–12 October 1967), physician and bacteriologist, was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, the son of Daniel Dick, a railroad engineer, and Elizabeth King. After two years of college at the Indiana University (1900–1901), Dick matriculated at the Rush Medical College of Chicago, where he received his M.D. in 1905. He then completed an eighteen-month internship at the Cook County Hospital, where he learned about the clinical practice of medicine as he rotated between different clinical services, including internal medicine, pediatrics, gynecology, pathology, and general surgery. Like many an ambitious, young physician of the early twentieth century who set his sights on an academic career, Dick traveled, in 1907, to Vienna and Munich, where he spent the year studying bacteriology. Although he maintained an active presence as a clinician throughout his career, it was his brilliant work in bacteriology that brought him international acclaim....

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Dochez, Alphonse Raymond (21 April 1882–30 June 1964), bacteriologist and internist, was born in San Francisco, California, the son of Louis Dochez and Josephine Dietrich. No record of Dochez’s early life exists until his mother moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he received his early education. Subsequently the family moved again to Harford County, Maryland, where they lived with Dochez’s mother’s family on their farm. Dochez continued his education by commuting to Baltimore and attending Johns Hopkins University, receiving his bachelor’s degree in 1903. Following the recommendation of his uncle, Dochez went on to study medicine and earned his M.D. from Johns Hopkins Medical School in 1907. The year after graduation, he worked in the pathology laboratory at Johns Hopkins Hospital, studying the effect of an iodine-free diet on animals....

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Ernst, Harold Clarence (31 July 1856–07 September 1922), bacteriologist and physician, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, the son of Andrew Henry Ernst, a businessman, and Sarah H. Otis. He received an A.B. from Harvard College in 1876 and an M.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1880. After a year as house officer at the Rhode Island Hospital he began private practice in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, and became assistant to the pathologist at the Boston City Hospital. In 1883 he married Ellen Lunt Frothingham; they had no children....

Article

Daniel M. Fox and Marcia L. Meldrum

Noguchi, Hideyo (24 November 1876–21 May 1928), bacteriologist, was born Seisaku Noguchi in Inawashiro, Japan, the son of Sayosuke Kobiyama, a gambler, woodcarver, and odd job man, and Shika Noguchi, a farmer. Shika was the last of the Noguchi family and adopted her husband, according to Japanese custom, to preserve the name. When Seisaku was only two, he fell into a fire and badly burned and crippled his left hand. The family was desperately poor, but a teacher and school examiner, Sakae Kobayashi, sponsored young Seisaku’s education and found a surgeon who operated on the injured hand. The boy became the surgeon’s assistant and, with the aid of his patrons, passed the national medical examinations in 1897. Although he still had little use of his left hand, his ability, industry, and eagerness to learn impressed others, and he continued to find sponsors throughout his career. Humble in manner, he harbored great ambitions, expressed in his choice of an adult name, Hideyo, “great man of the world.”...

Article

Reed, Walter (13 September 1851–23 November 1902), U.S. Army medical officer and bacteriologist, was born in Belroi, Virginia, the son of Lemuel Sutton Reed, a Methodist minister, and Pharaba White. After a year as an undergraduate, Reed entered medical school at the University of Virginia in 1868 at the age of seventeen; when he received an M.D. in July 1869, he was the youngest to receive this degree in the school’s history. After a year of study at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College in New York City, he earned a second M.D., although this degree was not officially awarded until he turned twenty-one. In 1871, after a brief time on the staff of the Kings County Hospital at Brooklyn, he accepted a residency at Brooklyn City Hospital and then served as an assistant sanitary officer for the Brooklyn Board of Health....

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Salk, Jonas Edward (28 October 1914–23 June 1995), physician and virologist, was born in New York City, the son of Orthodox Jewish-Polish immigrants Daniel B. Salk, a garment worker, and Dora “Dolly” Press. Salk’s early years were spent in a tenement in East Harlem and later in the Bronx, where he attended grade school. A voracious reader, he won entry at age twelve to the elite Townsend Harris High School, and after graduating at fifteen, he in 1930 entered City College. Although he initially considered becoming a lawyer, at City College he decided that science was more fascinating than law and resolved to become a doctor....

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Vaughan, Victor Clarence (27 October 1851–21 November 1929), biochemist and bacteriologist, was born in Mount Airy, Missouri, the son of John Vaughan and Adeline Dameron, farmers. He received his early education at home from his mother, from private tutors, and in a community schoolhouse. At the age of seventeen, he enrolled in Mt. Pleasant College, from which he graduated with a B.S. in 1872. Vaughan taught chemistry and Latin at Mt. Pleasant from his student days until 1874, when he moved to Hardin College, a women’s school, to teach the same subjects for a semester. In the fall of 1874, he enrolled in the University of Michigan to pursue graduate studies, his choice of institutions influenced by the fact that Michigan had a large, well-equipped chemistry laboratory. He received his M.S. in 1875 and his Ph.D. in 1876 for studies in chemistry, geology, and biology....