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Brothers, Joyce (20 October 1927–13 May 2013), psychologist, television and radio personality, and columnist, was born Joyce Diane Bauer in Brooklyn, New York, to Morris K. Bauer and Estelle Rappaport Bauer, a Jewish couple who shared a law practice. She and sister, Elaine, were raised in Queens, where Joyce was an honors student at Far Rockaway High School....

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Cattell, James McKeen (25 May 1860–20 January 1944), psychologist and editor, was born in Easton, Pennsylvania, the son of William C. Cattell, a Presbyterian minister and president of Lafayette College in Easton, and Elizabeth McKeen, the daughter of James McKeen, the college’s most generous benefactor. Cattell grew up as the scion of Easton’s leading family, and even as a student at Lafayette (A.B., 1880) he came to expect the deference of others. His family’s closeness led him to study the ethics of Comtean positivism, which idealized the mother’s sacrifice in childbirth as the model of all altruistic behavior. At Lafayette, the teaching of philologist Francis Andrew March—especially March’s emphasis on the philosophy of Francis Bacon—impressed him. Cattell developed an approach to science that combined a Comtean emphasis on quantification with a Baconian appreciation for the hypothesis-free collection of empirical “facts” and the usefulness of science. Throughout his career he adopted methods that produced quantitative data about psychological phenomena, even if he often could not explain them....

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Gilbreth, Lillian Evelyn Moller (24 May 1878–02 January 1972), industrial psychologist, was born in Oakland, California, the daughter of William Moller, a partner in a large retail hardware business, and Annie Delger. Lillian was tutored at home by her mother until she was nine, after which she attended public elementary and high schools. In high school she studied music with John Metcalfe, for whose song “Sunrise” she wrote the verses. Her lifelong interest in poetry began at this period. She attended the University of California in nearby Berkeley, receiving a B.Litt. degree in 1900. She was the first woman commencement speaker at Berkeley. She then moved to New York to begin graduate studies in English literature at Columbia University, but she soon left before getting a degree and returned to Berkeley, where she received an M.Litt. in 1902. Her thesis was on Ben Jonson’s ...

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Hall, Granville Stanley (01 February 1844–24 April 1924), psychologist and educator, was born in Ashfield, Massachusetts, the son of Granville Bascom Hall, a farmer and local leader, and Abigail Beals. Raised in a family of Congregational piety and intellectual and social ambition, Hall graduated from Williams College with a B.A. degree in 1867 and attended Union Theological Seminary from 1867 to 1869. Interested in a philosophical career, he then spent fifteen months of study in Berlin, where he was drawn to Hegelian philosophy and evolutionary naturalism. Although he returned to Union and earned a divinity degree in 1870, he did not want to preach. After teaching philosophy and literature at Antioch College from 1872 to 1876, he decided to focus on physiological psychology. At Harvard University he studied under ...

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Hollingworth, Harry Levi (26 May 1880–17 September 1956), psychologist, was born in DeWitt, Nebraska, the son of Thomas Hollingworth, a carpenter, and Libbie J. Andrews. From the age of eleven, Hollingworth worked as a carpenter with his father. In his later teens he mail-ordered volumes by ...

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Hollingworth, Leta Anna Stetter (25 May 1886–27 November 1939), psychologist and feminist, was born in a dugout near Chadron, Nebraska, the daughter of John G. Stetter and Margaret Elinor Danley. Her father, a fun-loving but irresponsible Virginian of German descent, worked as a peddler, entertainer, and itinerant cowboy. Her mother, the well-educated daughter of a neighboring Scotch-Irish farm family, died in 1890, leaving three girls to be reared by their maternal grandparents. At twelve Leta and her sisters moved to Valentine, Nebraska, to live with their father and his new wife, a troubled woman who made life a “fiery furnace.”...

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James, William (11 January 1842–26 August 1910), philosopher and psychologist, was born in New York City, the son of Henry James (1811–1882), a philosopher and religious writer, and Mary Robertson Walsh. His grandfather, William James of Albany, a penniless immigrant from Ireland, became one of the richest men in New York State by exploiting a new method of extracting salt and speculating in land along the Erie Canal. His son Henry James used his inheritance to lead a life of the mind, devoting himself to metaphysics in the grand style and publishing a number of books and essays on the relations between God and man, influenced by the Swedish seer, Emanuel Swedenborg. Henry James suffered extensive financial losses, and his five children, although heirs to some commercial property in Syracuse, New York, had to concern themselves with making a living. Besides William, there were the novelist ...

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Leary, Timothy (22 October 1920–31 May 1996), clinical psychologist and psychedelic drug guru, was born Timothy Francis Leary in Springfield, Massachusetts, the son of Captain Timothy "Tote" Leary, a U.S. Army dentist, and Abigail Ferris Leary, a schoolteacher. Leary was an extremely bright, inquisitive, and outgoing child who inherited his family's Celtic flair for revelry and literature and a healthy disrespect for authority. Leary writes in his autobiography, ...