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Goddard, Paul Beck (26 January 1811–03 July 1866), pioneer in photography, physician, and anatomist, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of John Goddard and Mary Beck. He received an A.B. from Washington (later Trinity) College in Hartford, Connecticut, in 1828. The same year he entered the Medical School of the University of Pennsylvania, where in 1832 he completed his M.D. with a thesis titled “The Anatomy and Physiology of Mucous Membrane.” Goddard did not find the day-to-day practice of being a physician in Philadelphia particularly satisfying. After a few years in private practice, he became the assistant to ...

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Harlan, Richard (19 September 1796–30 September 1843), physician, anatomist, and paleontologist, was born in Philadelphia, the son of Joshua Harlan, a farmer and merchant, and Sarah Hinchman. Harlan attended schools in Philadelphia, and then entered the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, where he studied and worked under ...

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Mall, Franklin Paine (28 September 1862–17 November 1917), embryologist and anatomist, was born near Belle Plaine, Iowa, the son of Franz Mall, a farmer, and Louise Christine Miller, both natives of Germany. Mall’s mother died when he was ten years old, and his father remarried a woman who was unaffectionate toward Franklin. As a consequence, Mall had a difficult, unhappy youth and could not find an outlet for his creative mind. Mall’s whole attitude was changed by his boarding school teacher, Jack McCarthy, who showed Mall that the source of his disdain for school was not the subjects themselves, but rather the method by which they were taught, which stressed memorization without comprehension. McCarthy’s strong influence on Mall was evident in Mall’s later attempts to reform university science teaching....