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Bruce, Archibald ( February 1777–22 February 1818), physician, mineralogist, and editor, was born in New York City, the son of William Bruce, a British army medical officer, and Judith Bayard Van Rensselaer. Despite his father’s expressed wish, Bruce pursued medical education and practice. After taking an A.B. at Columbia College in 1797, he continued his studies in New York and then moved on to Edinburgh (M.D., 1800). As was common in this period, his medical education included exposure to the natural sciences, and Bruce developed a lifelong interest in mineralogy. After completing his M.D., he extended his European stay with travels on the Continent to study mineralogy and collect materials for his own mineralogical cabinet....

Article

Cattell, James McKeen (25 May 1860–20 January 1944), psychologist and editor, was born in Easton, Pennsylvania, the son of William C. Cattell, a Presbyterian minister and president of Lafayette College in Easton, and Elizabeth McKeen, the daughter of James McKeen, the college’s most generous benefactor. Cattell grew up as the scion of Easton’s leading family, and even as a student at Lafayette (A.B., 1880) he came to expect the deference of others. His family’s closeness led him to study the ethics of Comtean positivism, which idealized the mother’s sacrifice in childbirth as the model of all altruistic behavior. At Lafayette, the teaching of philologist Francis Andrew March—especially March’s emphasis on the philosophy of Francis Bacon—impressed him. Cattell developed an approach to science that combined a Comtean emphasis on quantification with a Baconian appreciation for the hypothesis-free collection of empirical “facts” and the usefulness of science. Throughout his career he adopted methods that produced quantitative data about psychological phenomena, even if he often could not explain them....

Article

Gould, George Milbry (08 November 1848–08 August 1922), medical editor and writer, was born in Auburn, Maine, the son of George Thomas Gould and Eliza A. Lapham, professions unknown. His mother died when he was very young, and he moved with his father and stepmother to Salina, Ohio. He received his early education in the Salina public schools. In 1861, at the start of the Civil War, he enlisted in the Sixty-third Ohio Volunteers of the Union army as a drummer boy. He served for eighteen months before he was discharged because of illness. In 1864 he enlisted as a soldier in the 141st Ohio Volunteers and was discharged when the war ended. He attended Ohio Wesleyan University and graduated in 1873 with an A.B. To pay for his undergraduate education, Gould worked as a compositor in a printing shop. He left Ohio, entered the Harvard Divinity School, and graduated in 1874 with a bachelor of sacred theology degree, followed by postgraduate studies in Paris, Leipzig, and Berlin....

Article

Martin, Franklin Henry (13 July 1857–07 March 1935), surgeon, organizer, and editor, was born on a farm near Ixonia, Wisconsin, the son of Edmond Martin and Josephine Carlin, farmers. Martin’s father died in the Union army in 1862. Five years later his mother remarried, and young Martin was put under the care of his maternal grandparents. After passing the teacher’s examination, he taught at several village schools....