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Colden, Cadwallader (07 February 1689–20 September 1776), physician, natural scientist, and lieutenant governor of New York, was born of Scottish parents in Ireland, where his mother (name unknown) was visiting. His father was the Reverend Alexander Colden of Duns, Scotland. Colden graduated in 1705 from the University of Edinburgh. He then studied medicine in London but, lacking the money to establish a medical practice in Great Britain, migrated to Philadelphia in 1710. Welcomed by his mother’s sister Elizabeth Hill, Colden established himself as a merchant and physician. He returned to Scotland briefly in 1715, where in November of that year he married Alice Chrystie of Kelso, Scotland. After their marriage they returned to Philadelphia; the couple had eleven children. During a 1717 visit to New York, Colden was persuaded by Governor ...

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Cooper, James Graham (19 June 1830–19 July 1902), naturalist and physician, was born in New York City, the son of William Cooper and Frances Graham. William Cooper (for whom the species commonly known as Cooper’s hawk is named) was a founding member of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York and was closely associated with ...

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Drake, Daniel (20 October 1785–05 November 1852), physician, naturalist, and educator, was born near Bound Brook, New Jersey, the son of Isaac Drake and Elizabeth Shotwell, farmers. The family moved west in 1788 to Mays Lick, Kentucky. At the age of fifteen Drake was apprenticed to Dr. ...

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Holbrook, John Edwards (30 December 1794–08 September 1871), physician and naturalist, was born in Beaufort, South Carolina, the son of Silas Holbrook, a teacher, and Mary Edwards. Although he lived in South Carolina for at least the first two years of his life, Holbrook grew up in North Wrentham (later incorporated into Norfolk), Massachusetts, the original home of his father, who died in 1800, and his uncle and, later, stepfather, Daniel Holbrook. After receiving his preparatory education locally at Day’s Academy and from a tutor in a neighboring town, he enrolled in Brown University, from which he received his baccalaureate in 1815. Holbrook then studied briefly with a physician in Boston and later entered the medical program of the University of Pennsylvania. Upon receiving his M.D. in 1818 he went abroad and traveled extensively in Ireland and Great Britain, collecting botanical and mineral specimens, visiting hospitals, and, at the University of Edinburgh, attending lectures in medicine and natural history. He ended his tour in London in December 1819 and then went to the Continent to travel about Italy, Germany, and France. Holbrook spent considerable time at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris and became well-acquainted with a number of prominent naturalists, including Achille Valenciennes....

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Kirtland, Jared Potter (10 November 1793–10 December 1877), naturalist and physician, was born in Wallingford, Connecticut, the son of Turhand Kirtland, a land agent, and Mary Potter. Kirtland’s father moved from Connecticut to Poland, Ohio, in 1803, leaving Kirtland behind in the care of his maternal grandfather, Jared Potter, who was a physician and naturalist. Kirtland attended the Wallingford and Cheshire Academies and, under the tutelage of his grandfather, had an extensive education in natural history and particularly in horticulture. When his father became ill in 1810, Kirtland traveled to Poland, Ohio, frequently stopping along the way to study natural history and to visit gardens and orchards. Upon arriving in Poland, he began teaching in the village school and may have intended to stay for a prolonged period, but the death of his grandfather in 1811 caused Kirtland to return to Wallingford. He inherited Potter’s library and enough money to enable him to study medicine, first with preceptors in Wallingford and Hartford, and then, beginning in 1813, at the new medical school at Yale. In 1814 he attended medical school at the University of Pennsylvania but returned to Yale, from which he received a medical degree in March 1815. Continuing his studies in natural history, he studied geology and mineralogy at Yale with ...