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Baldwin, James Mark (12 January 1861–08 November 1934), psychologist and philosopher, was born in Columbia, South Carolina, the son of Cyrus Hull Baldwin, a businessman and sometime federal official, and Lydia Eunice Ford. Baldwin entered Princeton as a sophomore in 1881. There, under President ...

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Bryan, William Lowe (11 November 1860–21 November 1955), philosopher, psychologist, and educator, was born William Julian Bryan on a farm near Bloomington, Indiana, the son of John Bryan, a Presbyterian minister, and Eliza Jane Philips. In 1876 he entered the preparatory department of Indiana University in Bloomington, which served as the local high school, and the next year he matriculated as a university student. As an undergraduate he developed his skills in public speaking and helped to revive the ...

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Fromm, Erich Pinchas (23 March 1900–18 March 1980), psychoanalyst, social psychologist, and author, was born in Frankfurt, Germany, the son of Naphtali Fromm, a wine merchant, and Rosa Krause. The marriage was unhappy, and Fromm was, in his words, an “unbearable, neurotic child” (Burston, p. 8). When he was twelve, a gifted, beautiful young woman close to his family committed suicide. The event impressed on him the irrationalities of human behavior, as did the First World War. When the war ended in German defeat in 1918, Fromm “was a deeply troubled young man who was obsessed with the question of how war was possible, by the wish to understand the irrationality of human mass behavior, by a passionate desire for peace and international understanding” (Burston, p. 10)....

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Holt, Edwin Bissell (21 August 1873–25 January 1946), psychologist and philosopher, was born in Winchester, Massachusetts, the son of Stephen Abbott Holt, a Congregational minister, and Nancy Wyman Cutter. A precocious youth, Holt was encouraged in his interests in plant and animal life by his devoted but domineering mother. He graduated from Harvard in 1896 and studied medicine the next year at the University of Freiburg in Germany. He then began graduate work at Harvard before serving briefly in the army during the Spanish-American War. In 1900 he took a master’s degree at Columbia University under the psychologist ...

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James, William (11 January 1842–26 August 1910), philosopher and psychologist, was born in New York City, the son of Henry James (1811–1882), a philosopher and religious writer, and Mary Robertson Walsh. His grandfather, William James of Albany, a penniless immigrant from Ireland, became one of the richest men in New York State by exploiting a new method of extracting salt and speculating in land along the Erie Canal. His son Henry James used his inheritance to lead a life of the mind, devoting himself to metaphysics in the grand style and publishing a number of books and essays on the relations between God and man, influenced by the Swedish seer, Emanuel Swedenborg. Henry James suffered extensive financial losses, and his five children, although heirs to some commercial property in Syracuse, New York, had to concern themselves with making a living. Besides William, there were the novelist ...

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William James. Oil on cardboard, c. 1859, by John La Farge. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Mrs. Francis P. Garvan.

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Ladd, George Trumbull (19 January 1842–08 August 1921), theologian, philosopher, and psychologist, was born in Painesville, Ohio, the son of Silas Trumbull Ladd, a businessman and treasurer of Western Reserve College, and Elizabeth Williams. Ladd graduated from Western Reserve College in 1864 and from Andover Theological Seminary in 1869. Also in 1869 he married Cornelia Ann Tallman of Bellaire, Ohio; they had four children. He was a minister for nearly a decade, spending two years in a small church in Ohio and eight years in the large Spring Street Congregational Church in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Ladd wrote and read feverishly throughout his life. Having a passion for scholarship, he grew tired of the pastorate and sought freedom in the academic world. He justified this transition by planning a defense of his faith in opposition to the increasingly scientific and secular world. According to his biographer E. S. Mills, “he would serve as the mediator between the old and the new so that the best of both worlds of learning and experience might be preserved.” In 1879 Ladd accepted a post in the department of philosophy at Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine. Two years later he moved to New Haven, Connecticut, and began his long association with Yale University. At Yale, Ladd was appointed professor of moral and mental philosophy....

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Martin, Everett Dean (05 July 1880–10 May 1941), social psychologist, social philosopher, and adult educator, was born in Jacksonville, Illinois, the son of Buker E. Martin, a tobacconist, and Mollie Field. Martin earned his B.A. from Illinois College in Jacksonville in 1904. In 1907 he graduated from McCormick Theological Seminary and was ordained as a Congregational minister. That same year he married Esther W. Kirk; they had three daughters. Martin held pastorates in Lombard, Illinois (1906–1908), Dixon, Illinois (1908–1910), and Des Moines, Iowa, where he was a minister of the First Unitarian Church (1910–1914). In 1915 he divorced his wife, married Persis E. Rowell, and, as result of his marital problems, was forced to resign from the ministry. He had one son with Rowell, but this marriage also ended in divorce. In 1931 he married his third wife, Daphne Crane Drake....

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Pace, Edward Aloysius (03 July 1861–26 April 1938), Catholic priest and scholar, was born in Starke, Florida, the son of George Edward Pace, a Methodist planter and manufacturer of turpentine, and Margaret Kelly, a Catholic and daughter of the comptroller of the Port of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The first of eight children, Pace attended Duval High School in Jacksonville (1872–1876) and St. Charles College in Ellicott City, Maryland, a preparatory seminary (1876–1880, A.B.). He then became a seminarian at the North American College in Rome, studying philosophy (1880–1882) and theology (1882–1886, S.T.D.) at the Urbanian College. One of his professors was Francesco Satolli, a promoter of the Thomistic revival. Pace was ordained priest on 30 May 1885 for the Diocese of St. Augustine....

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Strong, Charles Augustus (28 November 1862–25 January 1940), psychologist and philosopher, was born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, the son of Augustus Hopkins Strong, a Baptist minister, and Harriet Louise Savage. Strong studied at Phillips Exeter Academy (1877–1880) and then entered the University of Rochester, where he won a mathematics prize in his freshman year. During his sophomore and junior years he studied at the Gütersloh Gymnasium in Westphalia, Germany. He returned to Rochester to complete his senior year, graduating with the class in 1884....

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Wertheimer, Max (15 April 1880–12 October 1943), psychologist and philosopher, was born in Prague, Bohemia, the son of Wilhelm Wertheimer, a business educator, and Rosa Zwicker. Wertheimer’s father had become financially well off from the success of his private school for individualized instruction in business and accounting; he was also a government consultant (drafting the laws for warehouse practices in Austria-Hungary), was active in the International Order of Oddfellows (a philanthropic and benevolent organization), and was a prominent member of the Jewish community of Prague. His father’s civic concerns and educational endeavours undoubtedly influenced Wertheimer during his early years, and his later development of Gestalt theory in part may have reflected the holistic orientation of Jewish cosmology. Wertheimer attended a Catholic elementary school and a municipal high school before enrolling in Charles University in Prague, primarily to study law, in 1898. He changed his studies to philosophy and psychology before transferring to the University of Berlin in 1901. In the spring of 1904 he went to the University of Würzburg, where he obtained his Ph.D. in psychology later that same year....