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Raymond Pace Alexander At his desk in his law office, circa 1935-1940. Collections of the University of Pennsylvania Archives.

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Alexander, Raymond Pace (13 October 1898–24 November 1974), lawyer, judge, and civil rights leader, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the third son of Hillard Boone and Virginia Pace Alexander, both slaves in Virginia who were freed in 1865 and migrated to Philadelphia in 1880. His background was working-class poor and he grew up in Philadelphia's seventh ward, an all-black community made famous by W. E. B. Du Bois's seminal study ...

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Allen, Macon Bolling (1816–15 October 1894), lawyer and judge, was born A. Macon Bolling in Indiana; the names of his parents and exact date of birth are unknown. He changed his name to Macon Bolling Allen by act of the Massachusetts legislature on 26 January 1844. Details of Allen’s early life and education are sketchy and contradictory. His birth name is given in some sources as Malcolm B. Allen, and his birthplace as South Carolina. Evidence suggests that he lived in Maine and Massachusetts as a young man. Maine denied his initial application to the Maine bar because of allegations that he was not a state citizen, but he purportedly ran a Portland business before 1844. It is known that he read law in the Maine offices of two white abolitionist lawyers, Samuel E. Sewell and General Samuel Fessenden, and that the latter promoted his admission to the Maine bar in 1844....

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Appleton, John (12 July 1804–07 February 1891), lawyer and judge, was born in New Ipswich, New Hampshire, the son of John Appleton and Elizabeth Peabody, farmers. After graduating from Bowdoin College in 1822, Appleton taught school briefly, then studied law in the offices of George F. Farley of Massachusetts and Nathan Dane Appleton, a relative and prominent attorney in Maine....

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Auchmuty, Robert (1687–28 April 1750), lawyer and Massachusetts vice admiralty judge, was born in Newtown Flood, County Longford, Ireland, of a Scottish family of noble lineage. He was the son of Captain John Auchmuty, a member of Parliament, and Isabella Stirling.

Auchmuty received his legal training in London at the Middle Temple beginning in 1705 and was called to the bar in 1711. He emigrated to Massachusetts in 1716, apparently as a protégé of the new royal governor, ...

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Axtell, Samuel Beach (14 October 1819–06 August 1891), politician, lawyer, and jurist, was born near Columbus, Ohio, the son of Samuel Loree Axtell and Nancy Sanders, farmers. Axtell graduated from Western Reserve College in Hudson, Ohio, and, after studying law, was admitted to the bar. He married Adaline S. Williams in 1840, and in 1843 they moved to Mount Clemens, Michigan, where Axtell established a law practice. The couple had at least one child. In 1851 Axtell migrated to California, where he invested in the booming mining industry and practiced law. Politically active as a Democrat, he helped organize Amador County east of Sacramento in 1854 and was elected as the new county’s first district attorney, a post to which he was reelected in 1856 and 1858....

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Baldwin, Simeon (14 December 1761–26 May 1851), lawyer and jurist, was born in Norwich, Connecticut, the son of Ebenezer Baldwin, a blacksmith and farmer, and Bethiah Barker. His mother died when he was a few weeks old. After a period of study with his brother the Reverend Ebenezer Baldwin in Danbury and additional schooling in Coventry and Lebanon, Baldwin attended Yale University from 1777 to 1781, a period that was interrupted by the fighting of the revolutionary war. After graduation from Yale, he taught school in New Haven and in Albany, New York, in order to support himself while deciding on a career. He became a close friend of ...

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Beatty, William Henry (18 February 1838–04 August 1914), attorney and jurist, was born in Monclova, Ohio, the son of Henry Oscar Beatty, a lawyer, and Margaret Boone. Beatty grew up in Washington, Kentucky, but his father moved both his law practice and family to Sacramento, California, in 1853. In 1855 William returned to the East to attend a preparatory academy in Kentucky, perhaps Center College in Danville, where his uncle, Armand Beatty, was once president. William also studied at the University of Virginia for two years before returning in 1858 to his father’s office to read law. Admitted to the California bar in 1861, he associated with his father’s law firm....

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Biddle, Francis Beverley (09 May 1886–04 October 1968), lawyer, judge, and U.S. attorney general, was born in Paris, France, the son of Algernon Sydney Biddle, a law professor at the University of Pennsylvania, and Frances Robinson. Biddle attended Haverford Academy (1895–1899); Groton Academy (1899–1905), where he excelled at boxing and gymnastics; and Harvard University, from which he graduated with a B.A. cum laude in 1909 and an LL.B. in 1911. His first job upon graduating was as personal secretary to Associate Justice ...

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Bond, Hugh Lennox (16 December 1828–24 October 1893), lawyer and judge, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of Thomas E. Bond, a doctor and clergyman, and Christina Birckhead. Having been sent to New York at a very young age, Bond enrolled at the University of the City of New York, where he received his undergraduate degree in 1848. Bond’s family was firmly rooted in Maryland, and he soon returned to Baltimore, where his father had established the city’s first medical school. Bond chose to pursue a career in law, and by 1851 he had been admitted to the state bar. Two years later he married Anne Griffith Penniman, also of Baltimore....

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Bradbury, Theophilus (13 November 1739–06 September 1803), lawyer, jurist, and congressman, was born in Newbury (now Newburyport), Massachusetts, the son of Theophilus Bradbury, a wealthy sea captain, and Ann Woodman. Graduated from Harvard College in 1757, he moved to Falmouth (now in Maine but a part of Massachusetts until 1820), where he briefly taught school. When courts were organized in Cumberland and Lincoln counties in 1761, Bradbury was the first man admitted to the bar. Bradbury’s knowledge of the law and effective, dignified courtroom manner led to his appointment as collector of the excise on liquor, tea, coffee, and china in Maine for the province. In 1762 he married Sarah Jones; they had seven children....

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Buchanan, John Alexander (07 October 1843–02 September 1921), lawyer and judge, was born near the village of Groseclose in Smyth County, Virginia, the son of James Augustus Buchanan and Mary Glenn Thomas, farmers. He attended local schools and was still enrolled at the Marion Male Academy when, at the age of seventeen, he joined the Confederate army. He enlisted in July 1861 as a private in the Smyth County Blues, which became Company D of the Fourth Virginia Infantry, part of the Stonewall Brigade. Though home on sick leave for several months beginning in October 1861 and again beginning in September 1862 (he was certified as suffering from asthma), he saw action in various capacities before being wounded and captured at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, in July 1863. He was sent successively to Fort McHenry, Fort Delaware, and then Point Lookout, all in Maryland, where he remained from September 1863 until February 1865, when he was released in a prisoner exchange....

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Cady, Daniel (29 April 1773–31 October 1859), lawyer and judge, was born in Chatham (now Canaan), New York, the son of Eleazer Cady and Tryphena Beebe, farmers. All his life, in work, family, religion, and personal character, Cady reflected the conservative tradition of his Connecticut-born parents. Several sources suggest that as a young man Cady worked as a shoemaker. His oldest daughter, Tryphena Cady Bayard, discounted this story, however, as the fabrication of Cady’s political opponents during his race for Congress in 1814. A story that he early lost the sight in one eye may also be apocryphal. When he was about sixteen years old he became a teacher to support himself while he studied law. He completed his legal studies in Troy, New York, with John Woodworth, who later became an attorney general and justice of the supreme court in New York, and was admitted to the bar in 1795. He practiced in Florida, New York, for a brief period before he moved to Johnstown, New York, the county seat of Montgomery County, about 1799. Except for 1843–1847, when he resided in Albany, Cady remained in Johnstown for the rest of his life. In 1801 he married Margaret Chinn Livingston, the daughter of Elizabeth Simpson and revolutionary war colonel ...

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Casey, Joseph (17 December 1814–10 February 1879), lawyer and jurist, was born in Ringgold’s Manor, Washington County, Maryland, the son of Joseph Casey, an educator and native of Ireland, and Rebecca McLaughlin of Pennsylvania. Casey’s family separated after experiencing what were probably financial difficulties when he was a young child. In 1819 Casey was sent to live with a blacksmith’s family in Newville, Pennsylvania, where his family had moved. He remained there until he was fourteen years old, when he returned to his father’s house in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania. Casey’s formal education was sparse, but he showed intelligence and became an enthusiastic reader, memorizing much of the Psalms and New Testament. He was a lifelong Presbyterian, but “free from all sectarian bigotry or bias” ( ...

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Benjamin Chew. Reproduction of a painting by George Lambdin. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-100844).

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Chew, Benjamin (29 November 1722–20 January 1810), lawyer and judge, was born at West River, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, the son of Samuel Chew, a physician who became chief justice of the lower counties of Pennsylvania (present-day Delaware), and Mary Galloway. In 1732 increasing pressure for religious conformity in once-tolerant Maryland led Chew’s father, a Quaker, to seek the more congenial atmosphere of Philadelphia. There Chew received a classical education and from 1736 or 1737 to 1741 studied law under ...

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Christiancy, Isaac Peckham (12 March 1812–08 September 1890), lawyer, judge, and senator, was born in Johnstown, Fulton County, New York, the son of Thomas Christiancy, a blacksmith, edge tool maker, and farmer, and Zilpha Peckham. When Isaac was twelve, his father was injured, leaving Isaac responsible for helping to support his family by tending their small farm. At age eighteen Christiancy began to teach school while attending academies at Johnstown, Kingsborough, and Ovid, New York. In 1834 he undertook legal studies with the help of John Maynard. Via an Erie Canal packet boat and a Great Lakes steamer, he journeyed to Monroe County, Michigan, in May 1836. There he soon entered the law office of ...

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Clagett, Wyseman ( August 1721–04 December 1784), New Hampshire lawyer, judge, and revolutionary war leader, was born in Bristol, England, the son of Martha (maiden name unknown) and Wiseman (also spelled Wyseman) Clagett, an attorney of Barnard’s Inn, who inherited the manor of Broad Oakes, Wimbish, Essex, which was sold for the benefit of its creditors in 1749. The younger Clagett received a classical education, studied at the Inns of Court, and was admitted an attorney of the King’s Bench. In 1748, after being commissioned a notary public, he removed to the British colony of Antigua in the West Indies. There he served as a notary and secretary of the colony and enjoyed the patronage of John Weeks, a wealthy planter, who in 1750 left him an annuity of £50 sterling for life....

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Clark, Charles Edward (19 December 1889–13 December 1963), lawyer, law professor, dean of Yale Law School, and federal appellate judge, was born in Woodbridge, Connecticut, the son of Samuel Clark, a successful dairy farmer, and Pauline Marquand. Clark kept farmer’s hours, believed in the redeeming virtue of hard work and candor, and accepted the conventional personal and family mores of New England Calvinism. His political opinions would change from New England Republicanism to New Deal Democracy, but his personal values remained a constant, rooted in many generations of Connecticut yeomanry....

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Joseph Force Crater Courtesy of the Library of Congress.