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Atwater, Wilbur Olin (03 May 1844–22 September 1907), nutritionist and professor of chemistry, was born in Johnsburg, New York, the son of William Warren Atwater, a methodist clergyman, and Elizabeth Barnes. The family moved from place to place within New England during his childhood. He attended the University of Vermont for two years but graduated in 1865 from Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. After three years of teaching school, he moved to Yale’s Sheffield Scientific School as a graduate student in agricultural chemistry under Professor ...

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Bard, Samuel (01 April 1742–24 May 1821), physician and teacher, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of John Bard, a physician, and Suzanne Valleau. Convinced by his good friend Benjamin Franklin that New York City offered a better opportunity for professional advancement, John Bard moved his family there in 1746 and soon became one of its leading physicians....

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Bennett, John Cook (03 August 1804–05 August 1867), physician, religious leader, and entrepreneur, was born in Fair Haven, Bristol County, Massachusetts, the son of John Bennett, a shipowner, and Abigail Cook. At his father’s death in 1817, he moved with his mother to Ohio to stay with relatives. In 1825, after a three-year apprenticeship with a physician and an oral examination by an Ohio medical society, Bennett received his M.D. and a license to practice. That year he married Mary Barker; they had three children. There is no evidence supporting his claim to have attended Ohio University or McGill College in Montreal; he did, however, become a Freemason in 1826....

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Bettelheim, Bruno (28 August 1903–13 March 1990), therapist, educator, and author, was born in Vienna, Austria, the son of Anton Bettelheim, a lumber merchant, and Pauline Seidler. Following his father’s death in 1926, he dropped out of the university to take over the family firm. Although successful in business, he re-enrolled ten years later to become, in February 1938, one of the last Jews to obtain a Ph.D. from Vienna University before World War II. While he was a philosophy student, aesthetics was his main subject, but he also studied psychology under ...

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Burnham, William Henry (03 December 1855–25 June 1941), professor of psychology, was born in Dunbarton, New Hampshire, the son of Samuel Burnham, a farmer and proprietor of the general store, and Hannah Dane. He entered Harvard in 1878, following three years of teaching while he prepared for the university; he graduated with honors in 1882. He taught at Wittenberg College (Springfield, Ohio) and at the Potsdam (N.Y.) Normal School before enrolling in graduate studies in psychology at Johns Hopkins University in 1886. At Hopkins he was part of a group of students of ...

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Caldwell, David (22 March 1725–25 August 1824), Presbyterian minister, self-trained physician, and schoolmaster, was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, the son of Andrew Caldwell and Ann Stewart, farmers. At the age of seventeen Caldwell became a carpenter’s apprentice and four years later a journeyman carpenter. At age twenty-five he experienced a religious conversion and a call to the ministry. He studied at the Reverend ...

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Samuel Henry Dickson. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B07155).

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Dickson, Samuel Henry (20 September 1798–31 March 1872), physician, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the son of Samuel Dickson and Mary Neilson, Presbyterians of Scotch-Irish descent who had emigrated from Belfast, Ireland, before the American Revolution. Dickson received his early education from his father, a schoolteacher, and at private schools in Charleston. At the age of thirteen he entered Yale College as a sophomore and graduated with a B.A. in 1814 a few days before his sixteenth birthday....

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Hartshorne, Henry (16 March 1823–10 February 1897), physician, medical teacher, and writer, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Joseph Hartshorne, a physician, and Anna Bonsall, the daughter of a prominent Quaker. He graduated from the Haverford School (later Haverford College) with an A.B. degree in 1839; in 1860 he was awarded an A.M. degree from the same school. Encouraged by his father to study medicine, he enrolled in the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania and graduated with an M.D. degree in 1845....

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Thomas C. James. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B015234).

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James, Thomas C. (31 August 1766–05 July 1835), physician and teacher, was born Thomas Chalkley James in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Abel James, a merchant, and Rebecca Chalkley. The son of devout Quaker parents, James was named after his maternal grandfather, Thomas Chalkley, an eminent Quaker writer and minister. His father, one of Philadelphia’s leading merchants, was a member of the Provincial Assembly, a friend of ...

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Keller, Fred S. (02 January 1899–02 February 1996), psychologist and educator, was born Fred Simmons Keller on a farm in Rural Grove, New York, the son of Vrooman Barney Keller, a salesman, and Minnie Vanderveer Simmons Keller. Keller's early education was disrupted by his family's frequent relocations, prompting him to drop out of high school. He then worked as a messenger boy and telegraph operator for the Western Union Telegraph Company in Saranac Lake, New York. In 1918 he enlisted in the U.S. Army, where he served in the field artillery at Camp Jackson, South Carolina. During World War I he was first stationed in France, where he experienced combat, then he was sent to Germany with the Army of Occupation. In 1919 Keller left the army with the rank of sergeant, and in September of that year he returned to high school at Goddard Seminary in Barre, Vermont, on an athletic scholarship for football. In the fall of 1920 he gained admittance to Tufts College (now University), where under the tutelage of Robert C. Givler he became interested in psychology and philosophy. In response to his poor performance, Keller left and worked a year for the Andover Press in Andover, Massachusetts. He then returned to Tufts and majored in psychology, graduating with a bachelors degree in 1926....

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Kessen, William (18 January 1925–13 February 1999), psychologist, educator, and historian, was born in Key West, Florida, the only child of Maria Lord Kessen, a third generation Key Wester, and Herman Kessen of Georgia, a ship's engineer with the Peninsular and Occidental Steamship line. The family moved to Fort Lauderdale when Kessen was ten; he graduated from high school at the precocious age of sixteen. The first in his family to attend college, Kessen pursued a variety of interests at the University of Florida, including history, acting, and radio announcing, but his undergraduate studies were interrupted by the outbreak of World War II....

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Kraemer, Henry (22 July 1868–09 September 1924), pharmacognosist and teacher, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of John Henry Kraemer, a merchant, and Caroline Fuchs. Orphaned at an early age, he attended Girard College from 1877 to 1883 and then spent five years as an apprentice in the pharmacy of Clement B. Lowe. In 1889 he received the graduate in pharmacy degree (Ph.G.) from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. During his senior year at the college and the year thereafter, he was assistant in general chemistry to Professor Samuel P. Sadtler at the University of Pennsylvania....

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Donald A. Riley and Mark R. Rosenzweig

Krech, David (27 March 1909–14 July 1977), professor of psychology, was born Yitzhok-Eizik Krechevsky in a small village in Russia, the son of Joseph Krechevsky, a salesman, and Sarah Rabinowitz. At the age of four Krech accompanied his family to the United States, where they settled in New London, Connecticut. Krech took to schooling, was a good student, and, according to his autobiography, soon became the “most educated American” in his family. In addition to the regular fare, he spent an hour a day in Hebrew School, where he learned some Hebrew and learned to read and write in Yiddish. His love of the Hebrew language and its literature endured throughout his life and remained long after he had rejected all formal religion....

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Maisch, John Michael (30 January 1831–10 September 1893), pharmacist and teacher, was born in Hanau, Hesse, Germany, the son of Conrad Maisch, a retailer of very modest means, and Agnese Louise Liebtreu. Educated in the local schools and taken under the wings of teachers who recognized his special abilities and gave him private tutelage, he gained free admittance to the Oberrealschule (a nonclassical upper high school). He studied languages, botany, zoology, mineralogy, and chemistry and was introduced to the microscope. Ill health, however, thwarted his hope to attend a Gymnasium to pursue a university education. He turned his attention to pharmacy, but involvement with the revolutionary Turners gymnast club of Hanau led to his capture at Sinsheim in 1849. He was imprisoned but escaped with the help of friends and fled to the United States. He arrived in Baltimore in September 1849....

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Martin, Everett Dean (05 July 1880–10 May 1941), social psychologist, social philosopher, and adult educator, was born in Jacksonville, Illinois, the son of Buker E. Martin, a tobacconist, and Mollie Field. Martin earned his B.A. from Illinois College in Jacksonville in 1904. In 1907 he graduated from McCormick Theological Seminary and was ordained as a Congregational minister. That same year he married Esther W. Kirk; they had three daughters. Martin held pastorates in Lombard, Illinois (1906–1908), Dixon, Illinois (1908–1910), and Des Moines, Iowa, where he was a minister of the First Unitarian Church (1910–1914). In 1915 he divorced his wife, married Persis E. Rowell, and, as result of his marital problems, was forced to resign from the ministry. He had one son with Rowell, but this marriage also ended in divorce. In 1931 he married his third wife, Daphne Crane Drake....

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William S. Middleton. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine (B019548).

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Middleton, William Shainline (07 January 1890–09 September 1975), medical educator and administrator, was born in Norristown, Pennsylvania, the son of Daniel Shephard Middleton, a grocer and wholesale confectioner, and Ann Sophia Shainline. He received an M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1911. While at Pennsylvania, he developed an interest in the history of his profession through contact with John G. Clark, professor of gynecology, and David Riesman, professor of clinical medicine and later professor of the history of medicine....

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Ordronaux, John (03 August 1830–20 January 1908), medico-legalist, was born in New York City, the son of John Ordronaux, a businessman, and Elizabeth Charreton. The elder John Ordronaux, a native of France, had commanded an American privateer during the War of 1812 and remained after the war in the United States, where he acquired and operated a sugar refinery. On his father’s death in 1841, eleven-year-old John was adopted by John Moulton of Roslyn, New York, who assumed the rest of his upbringing....