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Bartholdt, Richard (02 November 1855–19 March 1932), congressman and newspaper editor, was born in Schleiz, Thuringia, Germany, the son of Gottlob Bartholdt, a liberal forty-eighter (i.e., a supporter of the liberal revolutions in the German states in 1848), and Carolina Louise Wagner. Following early education in the Schleiz Gymnasium, he immigrated in 1872 to Brooklyn, New York, and gained U.S. citizenship. He returned to Germany to study law in 1877–1878. He worked as a typesetter and printer (Brooklyn, Philadelphia, and St. Louis), reporter for the ...

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Edward W. Bok. In the background are, from left to right, Senators George H. Moses, James Reed, and T. H. Caraway. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-103937).

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Bok, Edward William (09 October 1863–09 January 1930), editor, philanthropist, and peace advocate, was born in den Helder, Holland, the son of William John Hidde Bok and Sieke Gertrude van Herwerden, who, having lost their inherited fortune through unwise investments, immigrated to the United States in 1870. They settled in Brooklyn, where Bok and his older brother learned English in public school. With his father at first unable to find steady employment, Bok delivered newspapers, worked in a bakery, and wrote up childrens’ parties for the ...

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Cousins, Norman (24 June 1915–30 November 1990), author, editor, and peace advocate, was born in Union Hill, New Jersey, the son of Samuel Cousins and Sara Miller, owners of a dry goods store. Soon after his birth the family moved to New York City. In his youth Cousins excelled in English composition and was a fine baseball player. After graduating from Columbia University Teachers College in 1933, he secured an editorial position as an education writer for the ...

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Ginn, Edwin (14 February 1838–21 January 1914), publisher and peace advocate, was born in Orland, Hancock County, Maine, the son of James Ginn, a farmer who also had interests in lumber and shipbuilding, and Sarah Blood. Growing up in relative poverty and poor health, he attended local country schools on an intermittent basis. At the age of twelve he went to work as a cook in a logging camp that his father had established, and he later worked on a fishing schooner on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. After returning from his fishing voyage, he attended the local high school in Orland and also attended the seminary in nearby Bucksport in order to learn Latin. Ginn finished his college preparatory work at Westbrook Seminary, during which he supported himself by teaching in local schools during the winter, fishing in the summer, and working intermittently on the family farm....

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Allen Ginsberg, late 1960s. Courtesy of the Library of Congress (LC-USZ62-119239).

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Ginsberg, Allen (03 June 1926–06 April 1997), poet, was born in Newark, New Jersey, the younger son of Louis Ginsberg, a high school English teacher and and Naomi Levy Ginsberg. Ginsberg grew up with his older brother Eugene in a household shadowed by his mother's mental illness; she suffered from recurrent epileptic seizures and paranoia. An active member of the Communist Party–USA, Naomi Ginsberg took her sons to meetings of the radical left dedicated to the cause of international Communism during the Great Depression of the 1930s....

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Murray, Orson S. (23 October 1806–14 June 1885), Baptist minister, editor, and radical reformer, was born in Orwell, Vermont, the son of Jonathan Murray and Rosalinda Bascom, farmers. Murray grew up impoverished on a hardscrabble farm in Orwell, obtaining only a few years of schooling. His parents were devout Free Will Baptists, and as a teenager Murray felt called to the Baptist ministry. In 1828 he married Catherine Maria Higgins; the couple had nine children. Determined to have a classical education, he returned to school at the Shoreham and Castleton academies, completing his studies in 1832....

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Roerich, Nicholas (09 October 1874–13 December 1947), artist, author, humanitarian, was born Nicholas Konstantinovich Roerich in St. Petersburg, Russia, the son of Konstantin Roerich, a lawyer and notary, and Maria Kalashnikova Roerich. He was raised in the comfortable environment of an upper-middle-class Russian family and enjoyed contact with the writers, artists, and scientists who often came to visit. At an early age he showed a curiosity and talent for archeology, paleontology, botany, and geology. The young Roerich also showed a particular aptitude for drawing, and at the age of sixteen he began to think about pursuing a career as an artist. In 1893, to satisfy his father, who did not consider painting to be a fit vocation for a responsible member of society, Nicholas enrolled in both the Academy of Art and St. Petersburg University, where he studied law....

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Sayre, John Nevin (04 February 1884–13 September 1977), peace organization executive and editor, was born near Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, the son of Robert H. Sayre, general manager of the Bethlehem Iron Works and founder of the Sayre Mining and Manufacturing Company in Alabama, and Martha Finley Nevin, daughter of the president of Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Sayre graduated from Princeton University in 1907 and Union Theological Seminary in New York in 1910. In June 1910 he married Helen Augustus Bangs, who died a year later during Sayre’s further study at Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Ordained a minister in the Protestant Episcopal church in 1911, Sayre officiated when his brother Francis B. Sayre married President ...

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Villard, Oswald Garrison (13 March 1872–01 October 1949), journalist, author, and reformer, was born in Wiesbaden, Germany, the son of Henry Villard, a newspaper correspondent, and Fanny Garrison Villard. When Villard was born, his parents were sojourning abroad for his father’s health. The family soon returned to the United States, lived briefly in Boston, and moved to New York City in 1876. After attending the James Herbert Morse private school in New York, Villard entered Harvard University in 1889, earning his A.B. in 1893. He traveled in Europe for a year with his father, who by this time had bought control of the ...