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Adams, Cyrus Cornelius (07 January 1849–04 May 1928), geographer and editor, was born in Naperville, Illinois, the son of Cyrus Adams and Cornelia Stevens, farmers. He was raised by his aunt and uncle in Bloomington, Minnesota, and attended the nascent University of Minnesota for a year, continuing at the first University of Chicago. He became a reporter for the Chicago ...

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Atwood, Wallace Walter (01 October 1872–24 July 1949), geomorphologist and geographer, was born in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Thomas Greene Atwood, a builder and planing mill operator, and Adelaide Adelia Richards. After graduating from West Division High School, Atwood enrolled in the new University of Chicago in 1892. There he studied under the geographer-geologist ...

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Baker, Oliver Edwin (10 September 1883–02 December 1949), geographer, was born in Tiffin, Ohio, the son of Edwin Baker, a merchant, and Martha Ranney Thomas. His mother had been a schoolteacher, and because he was a frail child she supplied much of his early education. After graduating from public school Baker went on to Tiffin’s Heidelberg College, where he earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees in 1903 and 1904, specializing in mathematics, history, botany, sociology, and philosophy. In 1905 he earned a master’s degree in political science from Columbia University; from 1908 to 1912, after a year at Yale studying forestry, he did graduate work in agriculture at the University of Wisconsin, focusing on and mapping soils, climates, and agricultural production. During the summers he worked for the Wisconsin Soil Survey. Following a break from graduate school Baker returned to Madison to study economics, earning a Ph.D. in 1921 with a dissertation on land utilization. At the university two pioneering economists, Henry C. Taylor and ...

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Bowman, Isaiah (26 December 1878–06 January 1950), geographer, geologist, and educator, was born at Berlin (now Kitchener), Ontario, Canada, the son of Samuel Cressman Bowman and Emily Shantz, farmers. When he was eight weeks old the family moved to a farm near Brown City, Michigan. After attending country schools, Bowman began teaching. At age twenty-one he enrolled in the Ferris Institute, a college preparatory school in Big Rapids, Michigan, where he was influenced by geographer Harlan H. Barrows. In 1900, after a year of intensive study, he entered the Normal School in Ypsilanti, Michigan, where he studied under ...

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Brown, Ralph Hall (12 January 1898–23 February 1948), geographer, was born in Ayer, Massachusetts, the son of William Brown, a pharmacist, and Nellie Eliza Leavitt. He attended Massachusetts State College from 1915 to 1917 and graduated in 1921 from the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce, University of Pennsylvania, with a B.S. in economics. In 1925 he received a Ph.D. in geography and economics from the University of Wisconsin. In 1924 Brown married Eunice Rasmussen; three of their four children survived to maturity....

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Daly, Charles Patrick (31 October 1816–19 September 1899), jurist and author, was born in New York City, the son of Michael Daly, a carpenter and hotel manager, and Elizabeth (maiden name unknown). Daly attended a parochial school for a short time. Following the death of Daly’s mother, his father remarried, and after his father’s death, Daly was left in the care of his stepmother. At age thirteen he fled his home and settled briefly in Savannah, Georgia, working as an apprentice to a quillmaker. Within a year he left Savannah and went to sea for two years. Returning to New York City in 1832, he was apprenticed to a cabinetmaker. At night he educated himself through reading at the library of the Mechanic’s and Tradesman’s Society and participation in a literary society. In 1836 he exchanged the cabinetmaker’s apprenticeship for one in a law office. He passed the New York bar examination in 1839 and became a junior partner in the same firm....

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Davis, William Morris (12 February 1850–05 February 1934), geologist, meteorologist, and geographer, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Edward Morris Davis, a businessman with interests in railroads, mines, and the textile trade, and Maria Mott. Davis was associated with the civic elite of Philadelphia on both sides of his family. His maternal grandmother was the abolitionist ...

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Gannett, Henry (24 August 1846–05 November 1914), geographer, was born in Bath, Maine, the son of Michael Farley Gannett and Hannah Church. He studied first at local schools and then at Harvard University, where he earned a B.S. (1869) from the Lawrence Scientific School and an M.E. (1870) from the short-lived Hooper Mining School. Trained in astronomy as well as in the earth sciences, Gannett was employed at the Harvard Observatory before taking a position in 1871 as topographer on ...

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Guyot, Arnold Henry (28 September 1807–08 February 1884), geographer and educator, was born in Boudevilliers, Switzerland, the son of David Pierre Guyot and Constance Favarger. Born into a family that had converted to Protestantism in the mid-sixteenth century, Guyot initially planned to become a minister. After graduating from the College of Neuchâtel in Switzerland in 1825, he studied German and classics in Stuttgart and Karlsruhe and then completed a two-year course in theology at Neuchâtel in 1829. Returning to Germany, he continued his study of theology in the classes of Frederick Schleiermacher and Johann Neander at the University of Berlin in 1829. Fellow students and professors at institutions where he studied (especially naturalist ...

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Hakluyt, Richard (1552–23 November 1616), British geographer and anthologist of travel literature, was born in London, the son of a merchant father, orphaned at five, and reared by his uncle (the names of his parents and uncle are not known). He was descended from the Welsh Hakluyts of Herefordshire, whose family seat was Eaton, near Leominster. Richard was a queen’s scholar at Westminster school; during that period he visited his namesake, a cousin twenty years his elder, at Middle Temple, where he was introduced to “certeine bookes of Cosmographie, with an universall Mappe” and the Bible, and felt an immediate passion for “that knowledge and kinde of literature.” He entered Christ Church, Oxford, in 1570 and after earning his M.A. in 1577 began to give there the first public lectures in England on geography, lectures that “shewed both the old imperfectly composed, and the new lately reformed Mappes, Globes, Spheares and other instruments of this Art.” He also began a lifetime of voracious reading of “whatsoever printed or written discoveries and voyages I found extant either in the Greeke, Latine, Italian, Spanish, Portugall, French, or English languages.”...