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Mark Twain (1835–1910), author and lecturer, was born Samuel Langhorne Clemens in Florida, Missouri. Though he would intimate that his father descended from the gentry, his paternal grandparents were slave-owning farmers in Virginia, and his maternal grandparents in Kentucky, while better educated, were not wealthy.
Image credit: 'Mark Twain' via the Library of Congress.
Red Cloud, Oglala Lakota war leader and chief, was born on the Smoky Hill River in Kansas, the son of Lone Man and Walks As She Thinks. Petty rivalries were simmering between two loose associations of Oglala bands and to a boil in November 1841 with the murder of Bull Bear at the hands of Red Cloud.
Image credit: 'Red Cloud', photographic reprint via the Library of Congress.